Ancient Greek Archaeological Finds

Pietro_Mercurios

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http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4707014.stm

Greek tomb find excites experts
12 February 2006

Archaeologists in Greece say they are examining the largest underground tomb ever found in the country.

They said a farmer had stumbled across the tomb carved into the rock near the ancient city of Pella, the birthplace of Alexander the Great.

Archaeologists believe it dates to the period after Alexander's death, which was marked by mass power struggles.

The tomb was probably used by a noble family about 2,300 years ago - some of whose names are still visible.

Archaeologists said that the eight-chambered tomb was significant in style. It is accessible through a 16-metre entrance.

Rich family

Funeral tombs found earlier in Greece contained no more than three chambers.

Carved into rock, the new find is reported still to retain part of its internal wall colouring of red, light blue and gold.

It is believed that the tomb has been looted over the years. However, jewellery, copper coins and earthen vases were still found in the chambers, along with inscribed tombstones with the names still visible.

"This was a very rich family," archaeologist Maria Akamati told Reuters news agency. "This is rare as the cemetery is full of plebeians," or commoners.

She said at least seven people had been buried there.

The tomb was discovered by the farmer on agricultural ground close to the ancient cemetery in Pella.

The city was once the capital city of the Macedonian kingdom, which was ruled by Phillip of Macedon and later by his son Alexander the Great, who died in 323BC.

The period after Alexander's death was marked power struggles and intrigues between the royal family and Alexander's generals battling for control of his empire.
 

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And another.

Greek tomb at Amphipolis is 'important discovery'

Archaeologists know that major events took place in the area in the years after Alexander's death

Archaeologists unearthing a burial site at Amphipolis in northern Greece have made an "extremely important find", says Greek PM Antonis Samaras.

Experts believe the tomb belonged to an important figure dating back to the last quarter of the Fourth Century BC.

A large mound complex has been unearthed at the Kasta hill site in the past two years.

Lead archaeologist Katerina Peristeri said it certainly dated from after the death of Alexander the Great.

"The land of Macedonia continues to move and surprise us, revealing from deep within its unique treasures," Mr Samaras said while visiting the mound complex on Tuesday. ...

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-28758920
 

rynner2

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Greeks captivated by Alexander-era tomb at Amphipolis
By Giorgos Christides, Amphipolis, Greece

The discovery of an enormous tomb in northern Greece, dating to the time of Alexander the Great of Macedonia, has enthused Greeks, distracting them from a dire economic crisis.
Who, they are asking, is buried within.

In early August, a team of Greek archaeologists led by Katerina Peristeri unearthed what officials say is the largest burial site ever to be discovered in the country. The mound is in ancient Amphipolis, a major city of the Macedonian kingdom, 100km (62 miles) east of Thessaloniki, Greece's second city.
The structure dates back to the late 4th Century BC and is 500m (1,600ft) wide, dwarfing the burial site of Alexander's father, Philip II, in Vergina, west of Thessaloniki.

"We are watching in awe and with deep emotion the excavation in Amphipolis," Greek Culture Minister Konstantinos Tasoulas told the BBC.
"This is a burial monument of unique dimensions and impressive artistic mastery. The most beautiful secrets are hidden right underneath our feet."

Inside the tomb, archaeologists discovered two magnificent caryatids. Each of the sculpted female figures has one arm outstretched, presumably to discourage intruders from entering the tomb's main chamber.

The caryatids' modern counterparts are sitting in a police car, some 200m (650 feet) from the tomb's entrance.
The dig site is protected 24 hours a day by two police officers.
Their mission is to keep away the scores of journalists and tourists who arrive here by a winding dirt road from the nearby village of Mesolakkia.
An imposing no-entry traffic sign serves the same purpose.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Amphipolis site

437 BC Founded by Athenians near gold and sliver mines of Pangaion hills
357 BC Conquered by Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great's father
Under Alexander, served as major naval base, from which fleet sailed for Asia
1964 First official excavation began, led by Dimitris Lazaridis
------------------------------------------------------------------------

The excavation team has made no statement regarding the identity of the tomb's occupant.
But this has not prevented the media, archaeologists and laypersons alike from becoming embroiled in an often heated guessing game.

Archaeologists agree that the magnificence of the tomb means it was built for a prominent person - perhaps a member of Alexander's immediate family; maybe his mother, Olympias, or his wife, Roxana -or some noble Macedonian.
Others say it could be a cenotaph.

But only the excavation team can give definitive answers, and progress has been slow since the workers discovered a third chamber that is in danger of collapse.

Experts have not reached a verdict, but for the few hundred inhabitants of modern-day Amfipoli and Mesolakkia, the two villages closest to the burial site, there is no doubt: interred inside the marble-walled tomb unearthed near their homes is none other than Alexander the Great. 8)

"Only Alexander merits such a monument," says farmer Antonis Papadopoulos, 61, as he enjoys his morning coffee with fellow villagers in a taverna opposite the Amfipoli archaeological museum.
"The magnitude and opulence of this tomb is unique. Common sense says he is the one buried inside."

Archaeologists and the Greek ministry of culture warn against such speculation, especially since Alexander the Great is known to have been buried in Egypt.
"We are naturally eager to learn the identity of the tomb's resident, but this will be revealed in due course by the excavators," Mr Tasoulas, the culture minister, says.

etc...

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-29239529
 

Cultjunky

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I think your confusion Rynner, comes from the fact that the site where the tomb was found has been excavated for around 60 years...

http://en.protothema.gr/an-excavation-t ... olis-tomb/

The discovery of tomb in Amphipolis has now attracted the global attention and everyone eagers to find out as many information as possible.

However, the first one who had evidence on the tomb was archaeologist Dimitris Lazaridis, who started excavation works in the region in 1955.

...however, findings were less dramatic than this weekends announcement. Things started to look up around five years ago...

http://rogueclassicism.com/2014/08/19/i ... mphipolis/

hey are led by head of the 28th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Catherine Peristeri.

She has been the head of the service since 2009 but her connection with the tomb goes back a long way to the time when she was a research associate of famous archaeologist Dimitris Lazaridis, who began the excavations in the region in 1965. ...Until 2012, the excavations were limited to the first level, without giving interesting results. In 2012, however, Peristeri began to explore the lower layers to establish the size of the tomb.
.

There's always been a lot of excavations around Amphipolis, due to it's prominence as a navel/trading base base at the time of Alexander. This weekends announcement is cracking, nevertheless.
 

rynner2

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Cultjunky said:
I think your confusion Rynner, comes from the fact that the site where the tomb was found has been excavated for around 60 years...
It's all Greek to me! ;)

The navel/trading base confuses me too! :shock: But if it's a naval/trading base, I may have to steal the whole thing for the Lone CG thread! 8)
 

Cultjunky

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You can't nick it!!!!!

Did the Elgin controversy not learn you anyfink?

As it goes, Big Al had no Navy, but one of his major tactics, esp. against the Persians, was to attack their navel bases, so if you wanted to do a bit of a looksee around the web, search for Persian navel bases, or Miletus is a prime spot for info, Patara was an important conquest, IIRC.
 

ramonmercado

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Cultjunky said:
You can't nick it!!!!!

Did the Elgin controversy not learn you anyfink?

As it goes, Big Al had no Navy, but one of his major tactics, esp. against the Persians, was to attack their navel bases, so if you wanted to do a bit of a looksee around the web, search for Persian navel bases, or Miletus is a prime spot for info, Patara was an important conquest, IIRC.

He lost his marbles
 

Cultjunky

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My point exactly!

(only kidding Ryn :lol: )
 

rynner2

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Amphipolis skeleton from Alexander's time found in Greece
By Giorgos Christides, Thessaloniki

Archaeologists in northern Greece have found a skeleton inside a tomb from the time of Alexander the Great, during a dig that has enthralled the public.
The burial site at Amphipolis is the largest ever discovered in Greece.

The culture ministry said the almost intact skeleton belonged to a "distinguished public figure", given the tomb's dimensions and lavishness.
Chief archaeologist Katerina Peristeri said "the tomb in all probability belongs to a male and a general".

The excavation has fascinated Greeks ever since Prime Minister Antonis Samaras visited the site in August 2014 and announced it amounted to "an exceptionally important discovery".
The latest revelations have only added to Greek excitement about the identity of the person entombed at Amphipolis.
"It is an extremely expensive construction, one that no single private citizen could have funded," the ministry said at a briefing for reporters on Wednesday. "It is in all probability a monument to a mortal who was worshipped by his society at the time."

Speculation has been rife, with experts raising several possibilities including the deceased being a member of Alexander the Great of Macedon's family or one of his most senior officials.
The tomb dates from the late 4th Century BC when Amphipolis was a major city of the Macedonian Kingdom.
The site is located 100km (62 miles) east of Thessaloniki, Greece's second city.

Before the skeleton was found, some experts had suggested the site might be a cenotaph, built in honour of a major figure whose remains were elsewhere.
The limestone tomb was discovered 1.6m (5.2 ft) below the floor of the third chamber of the burial complex. It is 3.23m in length, 1.56m in width and 1.8m in height.
A wooden coffin was placed inside. Archaeologists discovered scattered bronze and iron nails, as well as bone and glass fragments - probably decorations from the casket.

The bone remains and any genetic material will be examined by specialists, the culture ministry said.
"The monument represents a unique and original synthesis," it added.

Earlier stages of the excavation brought to light a magnificent carved stone lion, two sphinxes, two caryatids and a floor mosaic depicting the abduction of Persephone by Hades.

[With pics, sketches, etc.]

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-30019338
 

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Coins featuring the face of Alexander the Great have been found at the largest tomb ever unearthed in Greece, where archaeologists are hunting for clues to solve the mystery of who lies buried there. The enormous tomb at Amphipolis in northern Greece dates back to the fourth century BC and contains near-intact sculptures and intricate mosaics.

The discovery earlier this month of a skeleton inside the structure has added to the excitement over the site, which has enthralled the Greek public.

The archaeologist in charge of the dig, Katerina Peristeri, on Saturday said they still did not know the identity of the skeleton but it was likely the tomb was built for a high-ranking individual. ...

http://phys.org/news/2014-11-ancient-co ... mb.html#ms
 

Quake42

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Sounds like quite a find:

Mystery of Greece's Alexander the Great-era tomb deepens with body discoveries
Remains of five people found in vast, ancient tomb dating back to Alexander's era, around 300-325 BC


A vast tomb built in the time of Alexander the Great in Greece contains the ancient remains of five people, archaeologists announced on Monday, deepening the mystery as to who it was dedicated to.
Archaeologists unearthed bones from at least five people, including a woman aged over 60, a newborn baby, two men aged between 35 and 45 and another adult of indeterminate age.
The bones of one of the men bore cut marks which were likely to have come from a sword or a dagger, the Greek culture ministry said, adding a new twist to the occupants of the necropolis.
The fifth person, whose gender and age has not been identified so far, had been cremated.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wor...t-era-tomb-deepens-with-body-discoveries.html

Raised a bit of a smile with this Xena fan, as our heroine hailed from Amphipolis and her sidekick/best friend/soulmate Gabrielle promised to take her body back there and, ultimately, to be buried there herself. Looks like Gabby kept her promise :D
 

ramonmercado

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Threads merged.

Xena and Gabrielle are merely sleeping; they will awaken and emasculate the jihadis'.
 

ramonmercado

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The ancient Greeks in Ukraine

By using aerial photographs and geophysical surveys, Warsaw archaeologists not only confirmed the location of settlement dating back more than two thousand years in Respublikaniec (Kherson Oblast), but also discovered previously unknown structures in its area - scientists from the Institute of Archaeology of the University of Warsaw summarised their research in Ukraine.
"In addition to non-invasive research, we also began regular excavations - said Marcin Matera from the Institute of Archaeology of the University of Warsaw, Polish coordinator of the project. - As a result we obtained archaeological material clarifying the position dating". The initiator of the cooperation of archaeologists from Poland and Ukraine is Dr. Nadezda Gavryljuk, and head of research from the Ukrainian side - Dmytro Nykonenko.

Archaeologists determined that the settlement was probably founded in the 2nd century BC. Researchers also discovered the exact outline of its fortifications - defensive walls and ditches. In addition to defensive functions, the place also served as a venue of trade between residents of the Dnieper steppes and the ancient world, represented by the nearby Greek colony - Olbia. The settlement could also have played a role in securing the waterway up the Dnieper.

"Our research focused on preparing archaeological documentation of the settlement and attempting to find traces of the ancient Greeks, here deep in the barbarian steppe" - added Dr. Matera. Aerial photos taken using a kite and GPS measurements allowed the archaeologists to quickly and precisely prepare the site plan. In turn, geophysical surveys allowed to discover a number of magnetic anomalies and resistance fluctuations within the settlement, which may indicate the existence of infrastructure elements below the surface. Next year, the archaeologists intend to carry out excavations in the most promising areas detected by this technology.

http://scienceinpoland.pap.pl/en/news/news,407262,the-ancient-greeks-in-ukraine.html
 

EnolaGaia

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The title of this article is somewhat misleading ... This site in Iraq has finally been explored, and it suggests considerable Greek influence in the century or two following Alexander the Great's passage through the area ...

Lost City of Alexander the Great Unearthed in Kurdish Iraq

A lost city that was overrun by Alexander the Great on his conquest of Persia has finally been unearthed in the Kurdish region of Iraq, decades after it was first seen on spy satellite imagery.

The site, called Qalatga Darband, was directly on the route that Alexander the Great took as he pursued the Persian ruler Darius III in 331 B.C. before their epic battle at Gaugamela. The site bears signs of Greco-Roman influence, including wine presses and smashed statues that may have once depicted the gods Persephone and Adonis. ...

FULL STORY: http://www.livescience.com/60545-lost-city-alexander-the-great-uncovered.html
 

ramonmercado

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A Horse or a Boat? Hip new theory.

Italian Archaeologist Claims That the Trojan Horse Was Really the Trojan Boat
11/15/2017

Thousands of years after Homer first made reference to the Trojan horse in a short passage of The Odyssey, an Italian archaeologist now claims that the mythical wooden creation was actually a boat, according to reports appearing this month in Italian media. Francesco Tiboni, a naval archaeologist at the University of Marseille, published an article in Archaeologia Viva claiming that the story of the Trojan Horse was nothing more than a mistranslation of one key word in Homer.

The horse, best known from a late version in the Aeneid of Virgil, is first recorded in Homer’s Odyssey, where it is alluded to in two places:What endurance too, and what courage he displayed within the wooden horse, wherein all the bravest of the Argives were lying in wait to bring death and destruction upon the Trojans. (4.271f.)

“…Now, however, change your song and tell us of the wooden horse which Epeus made with the assistance of Athena, and which Odysseus got by stratagem into the fort of Troy after freighting it with the men who afterwards sacked the city. If you will sing this tale aright I will tell all the world how magnificently heaven has endowed you.” ...

According to Tiboni, the horse was not hippos, the Greek word for “horse,” but hippos, a Phoenician term for a type of warship with a curving prow. This is based ultimately on a retrofitted legend recorded by Pliny the Elder, who in Natural History 7.57 wrote that “Hippus, the Tyrian, was the first who invented merchant-ships.” Hippus was, likely, the back-formed eponym of a type of boat called in Greek (but not necessarily Phoenician) the hippos, the first true plank-built cargo ship, and one long associated with Phoenicia. In academic literature, a curved Phoenician trading vessel is usually called a “hippos ship,” but it is not, to my knowledge, a Phoenician term. It’s a Greek one, because the ship’s curving prow resembled the curves of a horse’s head. ...

http://www.jasoncolavito.com/blog/i...t-the-trojan-horse-was-really-the-trojan-boat
 

ramonmercado

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Pottering about.

Potterymaking in ancient Greece was a male-dominated profession, but about 3000 years ago, one woman from the island of Crete broke the mold to become the only known female master ceramicist in antiquity. The finding, based on a lengthy biomechanical analysis of her skeletal remains, sheds light on the elevated roles played by women in at least some parts of the classical world.

The master potter, who lived to be about 45 or 50, was buried in the city of Eleutherna on the slopes of Mount Ida, the legendary birthplace of Zeus. Ornate pottery in nearby graves suggests she lived between 900 B.C.E. and 650 B.C.E., after the fall of the Minoan and Mycenean civilizations (depicted above) and toward the end of the so-called Greek Dark Ages.

On closer examination of her bones, archaeologists noticed some intriguing details: Compared with other women at the Orthi Petra burial site, she was unusually muscular, especially on the right side of her body. She had also worn out the cartilage in her knee and hip joints, which would have made moving a painful, bone-scraping affair.

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018...ly_2018-09-07&et_rid=394299689&et_cid=2356396
 

ramonmercado

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As holes are dug in the ground, a few holes in the prehistorical record are filled in.

Archaeologists have discovered two royal tombs in Greece containing jewellery and artefacts dating back more than 3,000 years.

The finds include a gold ring depicting bulls flanked by sheaves of barley and a pendant showing an Egyptian goddess. The US researchers say their discovery will provide new clues about early Mycenaean trade and culture. The tombs are near the Bronze Age palace of Pylos, in Greece's southern Peloponnese region. They are not far from another important grave discovered in 2015, believed to be that of an early ruler of the city.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-50832843
 

ramonmercado

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Healing sanctuaries and ramps.

It is the birthplace of western philosophy and politics. Now it has emerged that ancient Greece also had the first building regulations, creating disabled access to public venues.

The ramps at healing sanctuaries and other buildings are, a researcher suggests, the earliest evidence of ancient societies adapting their architecture for disabled people. It may lead to a reassessment of the Greeks, whose philosophers have supported eugenics and allowing disabled people to die.

According to a paper to be published in Antiquity, temples and other buildings were being built with disability access as early as the 4th century BC.

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/news/ancient-greeks-had-first-ramps-for-disabled-h6n82f3tf
 

ramonmercado

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Be interesting to se what else is found in the area.

A bust of the ancient god Hermes, in good condition, has been discovered in central Athens during sewage work.

The Greek Culture Ministry said that the head, one of many that served as street markers in ancient Athens, appears to be from around 300 BC — that is, either from the late fourth century BC or the early third century. It depicts Hermes at “a mature age”, the ministry said, in contrast to his usual depictions as youthful. The head is in the style of Greek sculptor Alcamenes, who flourished in the second half of fifth century BC, the ministry said. After serving as a street marker, the head, at some point, had been built into the wall of a drainage duct, the ministry said.

https://www.irishexaminer.com/world/arid-40083032.html
 

Nemo

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Greek battle helmet from the 7th century BC is found buried with an elite warrior who was laid to rest in a rock-cut tomb more than 2,000 years ago


An ancient Greek war helmet has been unearthed in a rock-cut tomb where a warrior was laid to rest more than 2,000 years ago.

The Illyrian helmet still boasts its iconic open-faced design that was developed in the Peloponnese region of Greece during the 8th and 7th centuries BC.

The tomb was built on the side of a mountain in Zakotarac, on the Pelješac peninsula, in southern Dalmatia, Croatia.

Archaeologists have also uncovered a trove of ancient weapons and unearthed another set of remains of a woman buried with a bronze bracelet around her wrist.

The discovery was made by archaeologists at Zagreb University, in collaboration with Dubrovnik Museums, which believes the grave was used for an elite member of the Greek military.

The Illyrian helmet was first used by ancient Greek Etruscans and Scythians and was later adopted by Illyrians - earning its well-known name.
(C) DailyMail. '20
 

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This a video from a channel that I follow: Scholagladiatoria. The chap who runs it is an antique arms dealer and also a practising historical European martial arts enthusiast. He knows his stuff, and he does videos about weapons, armour, and sometimes tactics, with a strong emphasis on historical context.

Specifically, I'm linking it here because of some of the actual Greek bronze helmets shown. If you don't watch the whole video, it's worth freeze framing at 13:14 to see rack after rack of surviving bronze helmets in quite good condition.

Bronze does not corrode as easily as iron or steel, and as a result we actually have more archaeological finds of surviving pieces of bronze armour and weaponry from the ancient era than we have of mediaeval steel armour. (Of course, there is plenty of mediaeval armour that has been deliberately preserved, but very little is found and dug up in recognisable condition.)

 

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Ancient Athenians Used a Jar Filled With Chicken Bones to Curse Their Enemies

Today, chickens are perhaps most often associated with comfort foods like soup and roast dinners. In ancient Athens, however, the owners of a 2,300-year-old ceramic jar containing the remains of a dismembered chicken appear to have used the animal for something far more sinister: a ritual designed to paralyze and kill upward of 55 people.

“This was meant to be a powerful curse,” [said] Jessica Lamont, a classics scholar at Yale University.

Researchers discovered the artifact near the Athenian Agora’s Classical Commercial Building—a public space used by the Greek city-state’s ancient artisans—in 2006. When Lamont analyzed the jar, she found that it contained a coin, a large nail, and the head and lower limbs of a young chicken.

fdasfsdf.jpg


“All exterior surfaces of the [jar] were originally covered with text; it once carried over 55 inscribed names, dozens of which now survive only as scattered, floating letters or faint stylus strokes.”

Some of the etchings form characters that may translate to “we bind.”

The nail and chicken remains worked in tandem with the writing to enact the curse. The bird was no older than 7 months when it died—probably because the curse’s creators wanted to convey the animal’s “helplessness and inability to protect itself” to their intended victims, according to the study.

Lamont adds that nails “had an inhibiting force and symbolically immobilized or restrained the faculties of [the curse’s] victims.”

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smar...h-2300-year-old-cursed-chicken-jar-180977938/

maximus otter
 

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Ancient Athenians Used a Jar Filled With Chicken Bones to Curse Their Enemies

Today, chickens are perhaps most often associated with comfort foods like soup and roast dinners. In ancient Athens, however, the owners of a 2,300-year-old ceramic jar containing the remains of a dismembered chicken appear to have used the animal for something far more sinister: a ritual designed to paralyze and kill upward of 55 people.

“This was meant to be a powerful curse,” [said] Jessica Lamont, a classics scholar at Yale University.

Researchers discovered the artifact near the Athenian Agora’s Classical Commercial Building—a public space used by the Greek city-state’s ancient artisans—in 2006. When Lamont analyzed the jar, she found that it contained a coin, a large nail, and the head and lower limbs of a young chicken.

fdasfsdf.jpg


“All exterior surfaces of the [jar] were originally covered with text; it once carried over 55 inscribed names, dozens of which now survive only as scattered, floating letters or faint stylus strokes.”

Some of the etchings form characters that may translate to “we bind.”

The nail and chicken remains worked in tandem with the writing to enact the curse. The bird was no older than 7 months when it died—probably because the curse’s creators wanted to convey the animal’s “helplessness and inability to protect itself” to their intended victims, according to the study.

Lamont adds that nails “had an inhibiting force and symbolically immobilized or restrained the faculties of [the curse’s] victims.”

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smar...h-2300-year-old-cursed-chicken-jar-180977938/

maximus otter
I believe they still use chickens in rituals in Dugu, Voodoo, Santeria etc
 

Kondoru

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But they used the inedible bits and presumably ate the rest.

Nothing makes me so mad as the folk who chuck out their chicken carcase; to me that is the most desirable part of the bird.
 
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