Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): The Disease & Its Spread (Per Se)

EnolaGaia

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Does anyone know the number of funerals done in the UK last year in comparison to previous years?
I doubt there's any solid data on funerals covering the whole of the UK. If there's any source of such data (or approximation of such data) it would almost certainly be a funeral trade or industry entity rather than the government.
 

Endlessly Amazed

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Did I not list them in this forum? Maybe that was someplace else that I listed them. I will look for the links.
Hello again -
Could you please provide us to links to your information sources? I and Ghost in the Machine, at least, have expressed interest in your sources. You have had time since my first request to do so, as evidenced by your six postings on this topic since my first request. I really wish to understand.
 

Ghost In The Machine

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I word everything strangely....
Well you worded it strangely if that is what you meant. Of course no vaccine is 100% effective for anyone, and there are some who will always have problems from any vaccine.
 

JahaRa

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Hello again -
Could you please provide us to links to your information sources? I and Ghost in the Machine, at least, have expressed interest in your sources. You have had time since my first request to do so, as evidenced by your six postings on this topic since my first request. I really wish to understand.
Here's one, and I do have to point out, I am stating opinion for this and you should be smart enough to tell the difference between opinion and stating facts.

Keytruda is an mRNA immunotherapy and here is the commercial for it. Pay attention to the side effects mentioned, they only mention the most Common side effects, and other immunotherapies all have the same side effects.


http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/cep/COVID/mRNA vaccine review final.pdf

The last two bullet points to the above document:
There is not sufficient evidence to support any conclusions on the comparative safety of different mRNA vaccines. Direct evidence on the comparative safety of mRNA vaccines and other vaccines is lacking.
 

Nosmo King

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Some of the most vulnerable patients, who are unable to receive the covid vaccine due to various conditions, are to offered the new drug Ronapreve next week.

"The UK's "most vulnerable" hospital patients, who are unable to build up an antibody response to Covid, will be offered new drug Ronapreve from Monday.

The new Covid treatment, approved just last month, uses a pair of laboratory-made antibodies to attack the virus.

It was famously used as part of the suite of experimental medicines given to US President Donald Trump last year.

The antibody cocktail has been shown to reduce hospital stays by four days and cut the risk of death by a fifth."

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-58602999
 

charliebrown

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I think I have said this before about the south.

There is the “ you can not tell me what to do attitude “, very mistrusting African Americans, and evangelical religious ideas that no one dies no matter what is happening.

The southern states are very complex toward the covid vaccinations.
 

Mythopoeika

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I think I have said this before about the south.

There is the “ you can not tell me what to do attitude “, very mistrusting African Americans, and evangelical religious ideas that no one dies no matter what is happening.

The southern states are very complex toward the covid vaccinations.
I understand their mistrust. Governments have not been exactly benevolent towards African-Americans in the past.
 

JahaRa

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New drug (Ronapreve) used on Donald Trump given approval for use in the UK:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-58602999
That is the drug my sister was given when she had Covid 6 weeks ago. Her daughter who is in her 20's got steroids and an inhaler for the cough, but my sister got an infusion of Ronapreve. She recovered a little quicker than my neice did.
 

Endlessly Amazed

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Here's one, and I do have to point out, I am stating opinion for this and you should be smart enough to tell the difference between opinion and stating facts.

Keytruda is an mRNA immunotherapy and here is the commercial for it. Pay attention to the side effects mentioned, they only mention the most Common side effects, and other immunotherapies all have the same side effects.


http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/cep/COVID/mRNA vaccine review final.pdf

The last two bullet points to the above document:
There is not sufficient evidence to support any conclusions on the comparative safety of different mRNA vaccines. Direct evidence on the comparative safety of mRNA vaccines and other vaccines is lacking.

JahaRa –

Thank you for posting this. However, the evidence I was asking you for related to the link between politics and vaccine decisions. What I asked was (Tuesday, 9:40 am, September 14, 2021): “What are your sources of information that you deduce a politically-based failure of a specific vaccine? I actually would like to understand your reasoning on this.”

So, you have not actually given a link demonstrating the source of information of your argument. If you have sources for this vaccine-politics link, I would be very interested in them.

When you write: “I am stating opinion for this and you should be smart enough to tell the difference between opinion and stating facts”, you are deflecting the focus of the discussion away from what you wrote earlier, and are shifting responsibility to the reader by stating that the reader “should” know that you were merely stating your opinion.

Ghost in the Machine wrote (Tuesday September 14, 2021): “It's still more effective than the flu vaccine ever is…” You responded (Tuesday September 14, 2021): “but I am curious about why you think the flu vaccine is not effective.” Your misinterpretation of what Ghost in the Machine wrote is a standard debating tactic. You have engaged in the same tactic with Yithian.

In other responses I made to you, I again asked for your sources of information related to other points. In all cases, you responded but never addressed the points directly. These are standard debating tactics, and do not increase the knowledge-base of the readers nor the community sense of a welcoming, honest, and informed discussion.
 

JahaRa

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JahaRa –

Thank you for posting this. However, the evidence I was asking you for related to the link between politics and vaccine decisions. What I asked was (Tuesday, 9:40 am, September 14, 2021): “What are your sources of information that you deduce a politically-based failure of a specific vaccine? I actually would like to understand your reasoning on this.”

So, you have not actually given a link demonstrating the source of information of your argument. If you have sources for this vaccine-politics link, I would be very interested in them.

When you write: “I am stating opinion for this and you should be smart enough to tell the difference between opinion and stating facts”, you are deflecting the focus of the discussion away from what you wrote earlier, and are shifting responsibility to the reader by stating that the reader “should” know that you were merely stating your opinion.

Ghost in the Machine wrote (Tuesday September 14, 2021): “It's still more effective than the flu vaccine ever is…” You responded (Tuesday September 14, 2021): “but I am curious about why you think the flu vaccine is not effective.” Your misinterpretation of what Ghost in the Machine wrote is a standard debating tactic. You have engaged in the same tactic with Yithian.

In other responses I made to you, I again asked for your sources of information related to other points. In all cases, you responded but never addressed the points directly. These are standard debating tactics, and do not increase the knowledge-base of the readers nor the community sense of a welcoming, honest, and informed discussion.
Politics is money. My opinion is that the Pfizer company used money to get their vaccine approved before the others. I think I said that, but if that was not clear, I apologise. I have seen a lot of political nonsense that in a seemingly round about way gave pharmacuetical companies a lot of money and most of it revolved around vaccines. For example the flu vaccine in the U.S. If you are not in the U.S. you would not understand except that based on some news items I have seen it seems very likely that the same thing goes on there.

If I did not use the preface "I think..." before my opinion I apologize. I am not a debater and I am not here to use any "tactics" Is this a discussion forum or a forum that requires documentation of proof for every opinion?
 

Yithian

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Is this a discussion forum or a forum that requires documentation of proof for every opinion?

Depends what the claim is, where it's made, and what further point(s) it is being cited in support of.

You'd probably get away with 'water is wet' from most of the members here.

Most of them.

Most of the time.
 

EnolaGaia

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Politics is money. My opinion is that the Pfizer company used money to get their vaccine approved before the others. ...
Any money Pfizer invested in getting approved first was the money they invested in producing the vaccine and running the trials necessary to generate sufficient data to submit to the FDA for EUA approval. FDA approvals for emergency use - as with all pharmaceutical approvals - are contingent upon submitting the data required to justify formal review and decision. The review procedure involves fixed criteria, cross-review and ethical / legal oversight.

The bottom line is that Pfizer met the requirements to be reviewed for approval before anyone else.

In any case, Pfizer did not receive any major head start versus Moderna. FDA EUA approval for the Pfizer vaccine was formally decided on 10 December 2020, and the equivalent EUA 'go' on the Moderna vaccine was decided exactly one week later (17 December). The Johnson & Johnson vaccine's EUA status wasn't formally decided until 27 February.
 

Endlessly Amazed

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By sheer happenstance, I did consulting work for Eli Lilly & Co. global headquarters in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA multiple times over a 10 year period. It was an education for me about the different aspects of pharma research, development, and the highly regulated steps (this is where country-specific approval occurs) leading to full market availability. Later in my career, I was part of an advisory group for the US Federal government dealing with national level planning for emergencies of different kinds: terrorism, weather (ex: hurricanes and earthquakes), and epidemics. Although I don’t write about my work experiences in these forums in order to publicly bolster my arguments or opinions - this may be the first time I have revealed some specifics - my experiences certainly inform my observations.

I think that funding the development of vaccines is a wonderful use of taxpayer money in the US. It is, on a per capita basis, both more efficient and effective in improving public health than treating symptoms after infection and sickness. Preventative medicine. I see nothing nefarious about governments funding vaccine R&D.

Some fun stuff I offer, based on my work experience (and no I give no links to public evidence):
The US government would never buy and store enough body bags to make me happy :)
Despite (or because of) the profits pharmaceutical companies make, they fund much research which never leads to a profitable outcome.
 

Lb8535

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Any money Pfizer invested in getting approved first was the money they invested in producing the vaccine and running the trials necessary to generate sufficient data to submit to the FDA for EUA approval. FDA approvals for emergency use - as with all pharmaceutical approvals - are contingent upon submitting the data required to justify formal review and decision. The review procedure involves fixed criteria, cross-review and ethical / legal oversight.

The bottom line is that Pfizer met the requirements to be reviewed for approval before anyone else.

In any case, Pfizer did not receive any major head start versus Moderna. FDA EUA approval for the Pfizer vaccine was formally decided on 10 December 2020, and the equivalent EUA 'go' on the Moderna vaccine was decided exactly one week later (17 December). The Johnson & Johnson vaccine's EUA status wasn't formally decided until 27 February.
Well, there are various ways that money/value/power/privilege can be transferred, sometimes it's not very evident, and I'd like to think that the CDC is immune from influence. But I'd agree that the fact that the second approval came only a week later would make me dubious of any horse-trading in this case.
 

ramonmercado

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Dally not, the llama will save us.

Tiny antibodies produced by llamas could provide a new frontline treatment against coronavirus in the form of a nasal spray, research suggests.

Scientists at the Rosalind Franklin Institute have found that the nanobodies - a smaller, simple form of antibody generated by llamas and camels - can effectively target the Sars-CoV-2 virus that causes Covid-19. Short chains of the molecules, which can be produced in large quantities in the laboratory, significantly reduced signs of Covid-19 when given to infected animal models, according to the study.

The nanobodies bind tightly to the virus, neutralising it in the laboratory, and could provide a cheaper and easier alternative to human antibodies taken from recovered from Covid-19 patients. Human antibodies have been used for serious cases during the pandemic, but usually need to be administered by infusion through a needle in hospital.

https://www.irishexaminer.com/news/arid-40703627.html
 

blessmycottonsocks

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Dally not, the llama will save us.

Tiny antibodies produced by llamas could provide a new frontline treatment against coronavirus in the form of a nasal spray, research suggests.

Scientists at the Rosalind Franklin Institute have found that the nanobodies - a smaller, simple form of antibody generated by llamas and camels - can effectively target the Sars-CoV-2 virus that causes Covid-19. Short chains of the molecules, which can be produced in large quantities in the laboratory, significantly reduced signs of Covid-19 when given to infected animal models, according to the study.

The nanobodies bind tightly to the virus, neutralising it in the laboratory, and could provide a cheaper and easier alternative to human antibodies taken from recovered from Covid-19 patients. Human antibodies have been used for serious cases during the pandemic, but usually need to be administered by infusion through a needle in hospital.

https://www.irishexaminer.com/news/arid-40703627.html

Best call for a doctor then.
Dolittle will sort it out:

dolittle.JPG
 

cycleboy2

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Belfast anti-vaxxer mother and daughter, both of whom were carers for the elderly, die within days of each other.

The mother had written the following:
"I understand that there is a minuscule possibility I could die, but I will most likely end up feeling like crap for a few days.

"I understand I could possibly pass it to someone else, if I'm not careful, but I can pass any virus onto someone else.

"I'm struggling to see where or how this ends.

"We either get busy living or we get busy dying."

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

I really do give up hope for humanity sometimes. That's four daughters without a mother. With 160,000 UK death certificates naming Covid as a factor, I'm going to stick with the vaccine; and I've got my flu vaccine next week for starters...

https://www.somersetlive.co.uk/anti-vaxx-mum-daughter-die-5928075
 

Ogdred Weary

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Belfast anti-vaxxer mother and daughter, both of whom were carers for the elderly, die within days of each other.

The mother had written the following:
"I understand that there is a minuscule possibility I could die, but I will most likely end up feeling like crap for a few days.

"I understand I could possibly pass it to someone else, if I'm not careful, but I can pass any virus onto someone else.

"I'm struggling to see where or how this ends.

"We either get busy living or we get busy dying."

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

I really do give up hope for humanity sometimes. That's four daughters without a mother. With 160,000 UK death certificates naming Covid as a factor, I'm going to stick with the vaccine; and I've got my flu vaccine next week for starters...

https://www.somersetlive.co.uk/anti-vaxx-mum-daughter-die-5928075

She had four other children? Feckless knobbers do seem to shit out more humans than sensible people.

Which goes along way to explaining the state of the World.
 

Tempest63

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Whilst I don’t have much time for the current mayor of London I applauded him when he said he would keep face coverings compulsory on Transport for London. Until I went from Monument to Victoria then a couple of hours later today Victoria to Liverpool Street and realised it is another load of BS that no one is enforcing!
First time on the tube in yonks and felt extremely uncomfortable and vulnerable.
 

flannel

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There's a 'miniscule possibility' that I could die in many ways - if I didn't accept the risk I wouldn't do anything.

At risk of being flamed, I haven't had the jab as I consider my risk for covid death is low (there are several calculators online).
 

Lb8535

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Here you go folks. This should bring them running.

National Geographic
TODAYS BIG TOPIC:​
HOW COVID AFFECTS
MEN’S SEXUAL HEALTH
Wednesday, September 22, 2021​
PHOTOGRAPH BY JULIAN STRATENSCHULTE, PICTURE-ALLIANCE/DPA/AP​
By Victoria Jaggard, SCIENCE executive editor

There’s no shortage of misinformation out there about the coronavirus, and some of the most pernicious claims swirl around vaccines and fertility. With apologies to Nicki Minaj, there is no credible scientific evidence that any of the COVID-19 vaccines cause impotence. However, there is now a wealth of data that shows getting infected with this virus can cause erectile dysfunction and other reproductive health problems for men.

Crucially, getting a vaccine is not the same thing as contracting a disease. Vaccines are designed to provoke an antibody response, and the ones approved or authorized for use in the U.S. don’t even contain dead or weakened versions of the virus. They instead use pieces of its genetic material to train the body’s immune system. (Pictured above, a man getting a rapid COVID-19 test.)

By contrast, coming down with COVID-19 allows the virus to replicate in your cells, and as Sharon Guynup reports this week, several studies show that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can invade tissues in the penis and testicles. As it happens, the testicles are a perfect hideout for a variety of viruses because they are immunologically privileged body parts, meaning they are shielded from the immune system. Once COVID-19 invades this region, it can hang out there indefinitely. “This may explain why 11 percent of men hospitalized with COVID-19 suffered testicular pain,” Guynup writes.

Other studies have found that men seem to be six times more likely to develop brief or long-term erectile dysfunction after contracting the virus. That’s likely because the coronavirus is known to attack blood vessels all over the body, and the penis relies on blood vessels to maintain an erection. Cells also become oxygen-deprived when blood vessels narrow, which means the surrounding tissues become inflamed and the vessels lose elasticity. “No oxygen, no sex,” says Emmanuele A. Jannini, a professor at the Tor Vergata University of Rome.

These kinds of health repercussions can be difficult to track because patients may be embarrassed or self-conscious. And it can be tough to report on them and not invite readers to dissolve into giggles with an unintentional pun. But this is serious science that deserves to be taken seriously. According to the New England Journal of Medicine, 10 percent to 30 percent of people infected with the virus—at least 42 million cases in the U.S. and 226 million worldwide—experience a range of ongoing symptoms collectively called long COVID. People can develop these debilitating symptoms even after a mild or asymptomatic infection. And the list includes several reproductive health problems for men, from sexual dysfunction and swollen testicles to mental health issues that decrease arousal.

Research is still in progress, and plenty of unknowns remain. But it’s clear enough by now that if you care about your reproductive health, you should be more worried about getting the virus than the vaccine. “The plausible relationship between COVID-19 and erectile dysfunction is one more reason for the unvaccinated to get their shots,” Jannini says. “If they want to have sex, better to get the vaccine.”​
 

Naughty_Felid

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There's a 'miniscule possibility' that I could die in many ways - if I didn't accept the risk I wouldn't do anything.

At risk of being flamed, I haven't had the jab as I consider my risk for covid death is low (there are several calculators online).

But it isn't all about you though, is it? It's about protecting your community, family, colleagues too.
 

Ogdred Weary

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There's a 'miniscule possibility' that I could die in many ways - if I didn't accept the risk I wouldn't do anything.

At risk of being flamed, I haven't had the jab as I consider my risk for covid death is low (there are several calculators online).

It's still reasonably low even for the elderly, you could still still become extremely ill with it or experience long term after effects, even if the illness is mild or asymptomatic. It's not a binary of completely fine/dead.
 

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EnolaGaia

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A small scale survey study in Michigan indicates patient delirium in severe COVID-19 patients is roughly 3 times as common as in other severe infections, and recovering patients display symptoms of cognitive impairment for days or weeks after discharge.
Hospital Reports a Scary Effect of Severe COVID-19 Is Far More Common Than Thought

Patients with COVID-19 who have been admitted to the intensive care unit are very likely to experience unusually persistent delirium ...

Delirium is a medical term used to describe confused thinking and reduced awareness of surroundings - a not uncommon state of mind for the sickest hospitalized patients.

As it turns out, severe cases of COVID-19 are enough to trigger something similar. In fact, initial investigations have suggested delirium occurs in up to 80 percent of ICU patients with COVID-19, possibly as a result of loss of oxygen to the brain or widespread inflammation.

Now a new analysis of critically ill COVID-19 patients at a single hospital in Michigan has found even more evidence that delirium is a very common symptom of the disease - one that could possibly slow patient recovery ...

Using medical records and discharge surveys from 148 patients checked into the ICU between March and May 2020, researchers have found more than 70 percent of the cohort experienced a prolonged disturbance in their mental abilities.

In most cases, the delirium lasted for days. But nearly a third of participants left hospital without demonstrating they'd fully recovered from their delirium.

Of those who were discharged with signs of cognitive impairment, nearly half required skilled nursing care to get by at home. Their persistent confusion reduced their ability to look after themselves, according to follow-up phone surveys conducted between month one and month two of being discharged. ...

It's not yet clear whether these severe impairments are a result of the SARS-CoV-2 virus itself, which seems to cause an unusual number of neurological symptoms that can persist for six months or more, or if it's a sign of critical illness more broadly.

Generally, cognitive impairment is seen in about 20 percent of patients in acute care facilities, so it's expected to a certain extent. But the current pandemic seems to have at least tripled that number.

While the mechanism behind COVID-19 delirium remains a mystery, researchers in Michigan say it is clear that ICU patients infected with the coronavirus are experiencing "considerable neuropsychological burden" both during their hospital stay and after being discharged. ...
FULL STORY: https://www.sciencealert.com/severe-cases-of-covid-19-are-very-often-followed-by-delirium
 

EnolaGaia

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Here are the bibliographic details and abstract from the published research report. The full report is accessible at the link below.


Ragheb J, McKinney A, Zierau M, et al.
Delirium and neuropsychological outcomes in critically Ill patients with COVID-19: a cohort study
BMJ Open 2021;11:e050045.
doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050045


Abstract
Objective
To characterise the clinical course of delirium for patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, including postdischarge neuropsychological outcomes.

Design Retrospective chart review and prospective survey study.

Setting Intensive care units, large academic tertiary-care centre (USA).

Participants Patients (n=148) with COVID-19 admitted to an intensive care unit at Michigan Medicine between 1 March 2020 and 31 May 2020 were eligible for inclusion.

Primary and secondary outcome measures Delirium was the primary outcome, assessed via validated chart review method. Secondary outcomes included measures related to delirium, such as delirium duration, antipsychotic use, length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, inflammatory markers and final disposition. Neuroimaging data were also collected. Finally, a telephone survey was conducted between 1 and 2 months after discharge to determine neuropsychological function via the following tests: Family Confusion Assessment Method, Short Blessed Test, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Cognitive Abilities 4a and Patient-Health Questionnaire-9.

Results Delirium was identified in 108/148 (73%) patients, with median (IQR) duration lasting 10 (4–17) days. In the delirium cohort, 50% (54/108) of patients were African American and delirious patients were more likely to be female (76/108, 70%) (absolute standardised differences >0.30). Sedation regimens, inflammation, delirium prevention protocol deviations and hypoxic-ischaemic injury were likely contributing factors, and the most common disposition for delirious patients was a skilled care facility (41/108, 38%). Among patients who were delirious during hospitalisation, 4/17 (24%) later screened positive for delirium at home based on caretaker assessment, 5/22 (23%) demonstrated signs of questionable cognitive impairment or cognitive impairment consistent with dementia and 3/25 (12%) screened positive for depression within 2 months after discharge.

Conclusion Patients with COVID-19 commonly experience a prolonged course of delirium in the intensive care unit, likely with multiple contributing factors. Furthermore, neuropsychological impairment may persist after discharge.

SOURCE / FULL REPORT: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/9/e050045
 
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