Date-Rape Drugs

ramonmercado

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Date-rape drugs 'not widespread'

Use of Rohypnol is not "widespread", said report
Date-rape drugs may not be as prevalent as first thought, research has found.
An Association of Chief Police Officers study has found many victims of sexual assault may have just been very drunk.

In 120 cases from November 2004 to October 2005, it found no link to the date-rape drug Rohypnol and only found evidence of the drug GHB in two cases.

In all 10 were suspected drug-assisted assaults involving sedatives or other drugs. The government said: "Rape is never the victim's fault."

A Home Office spokeswoman said the research added to the government's "understanding of the role of drugs and alcohol in rape".

"The government is working to put rape victims' needs first and to make it easier to bring rapists to justice.

The report does not seek to deny or neutralise the incidence of drug-facilitated sexual assault

Association of Chief Police Officers

"Rape is an appalling crime, which is never the victim's fault," she said.

She added that nearly £6.7m had been invested over the past three years in services for victims of sexual violence.

The study - thought to be the first of its size into drug rape - involved the Metropolitan, Greater Manchester, Derbyshire, Northumbria and Lancashire police forces as well as the Walsall area of the West Midlands Police.

The findings also revealed 119 of the 120 alleged victims admitted they had been drinking alcohol and forensic tests discovered evidence of alcohol in 52% of cases.

"In most cases, the alleged victims had consumed alcohol voluntarily and, in some cases, to dangerous levels," an Association of Chief Police Officers (Acpo) spokesman said.

'Debilitating cocktail'

"The report does not seek to deny or neutralise the incidence of drug-facilitated sexual assault but merely view the topic in the context of alcohol and other related issues."

And Det Ch Supt Dave Gee, co-author of the report, told BBC Radio 4's Today programme that 48% of victims said they had taken a combination of recreational drugs and prescribed medication, in addition to alcohol.

He said this "cocktail" of substances was likely to "debilitate" people.

"The most common method of spiking drinks is alcohol," he added.

The organisation's analysis also discovered 22 alleged victims were two to three times above the legal drink-drive alcohol limit.

Research questioned

Of the 120 people examined, 57 had traces of controlled or prescribed drugs in their systems, including cannabis in 20% of cases, cocaine in 17% and amphetamines (including ecstasy) in 9%, said Acpo.

In a total of 41 cases, one alleged victim had taken alcohol and illegal drugs, eight had taken alcohol and prescribed drugs and seven had consumed all three.

Ruth Hall, of Women Against Rape, questioned the purpose of the research and said there was "moralising" which meant men could consume alcohol, but similar behaviour by women was used to blame them for attacks.

Ms Hall told Today that her mind was "open" on the use of Rohypnol, but added that "the question is not what the substance is, but what the response is".

"What we needed was not research and data. The priority is to deal with the 5% conviction rate for rape," she added.


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6152646.stm
 

escargot

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I read a similar report in one of the medical journals a year or two ago.

If people are being taken advantage of when they're poleaxed, however they've got into that condition, it's still an offence.

However, it does show that the fuss over roofies etc was mostly hysteria. ;)
 

mindalai

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My own experience makes me think the report is probably correct. I've talked to at least 5 young women who are absolutely adamant they've had their drinks spiked. Every single one of them had been out drinking alcohol anyway and although they claimed they hadn't had that much to drink, when pressed for details of what they'd drunk they've reeled off a list of spirits, alcopops and cocktails which would bring down a small elephant. Apart from anything else, although they claimed to have had their drink spiked, nobody had attempted to take advantage of them in any way so it would seem a bit of a pointless exercise on the part of the person doing the spiking.

I'm not saying it doesn't happen ever, but I bet it happens a lot less than people think.
 
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I read a follow up to this story which said that by the time a girl has come round from the effects of the drug (8 hours later) the drug will be out of the system and untracable anyway.
 

ramonmercado

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Chris_H_Baker said:
I read a follow up to this story which said that by the time a girl has come round from the effects of the drug (8 hours later) the drug will be out of the system and untracable anyway.
Could you provide a source for this?
 
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ramonmercado said:
Chris_H_Baker said:
I read a follow up to this story which said that by the time a girl has come round from the effects of the drug (8 hours later) the drug will be out of the system and untracable anyway.
Could you provide a source for this?
I'm trying to remember where it read it.

I checked yesterdays london metro and can't find it. I was reading the daily mirror in the cafe yesterday (it had a good article on our old friend ian huntley), so it may have been in there.

I would like to know for myself whether it is right or not.
 

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The wiki entry for rohypnol claims thus:

Flunitrazepam is known to induce anterograde amnesia in sufficient doses; individuals are unable to remember certain events that they experienced while under the influence of the drug. This effect is particularly dangerous when flunitrazepam is used to aid in the commission of sexual assault; victims may not be able to clearly recall the assault, the assailant, or the events surrounding the assault.

It is difficult to estimate just how many flunitrazepam-facilitated rapes have occurred in the past. Very often, biological samples are taken from the victim at a time when the effects of the drug have already passed and only residual amounts remain in the body fluids. These residual amounts are difficult, and sometimes impossible, to detect using standard screening assays available in the United States. If flunitrazepam exposure is to be detected at all, urine samples need to be collected within 72 hours and subjected to sensitive analytical tests. The problem is compounded by the onset of amnesia after ingestion of the drug, which causes the victim to be uncertain about the facts surrounding the rape. This uncertainty may lead to critical delays or even reluctance to report the rape and provide appropriate biological samples for testing. If a person suspects that he or she is the victim of a flunitrazepam-facilitated rape, he or she should get laboratory testing for flunitrazepam as soon as possible.

It must be noted that an inability to remember events, including sexual encounters, is not conclusive evidence of having consumed a drugged drink: Drunkenness itself causes blackouts, sleepiness, and a reduction in inhibitions. Only a timely screening for flunitrazepam can demonstrate its use.

There's also an interesting reference on the connected discussion page:

I think Roche has since added something to the pill form that makes it so the fluid turns blue when you put it in, to help prevent it in facilitation with date rape. Nathan J. Yoder 19:26, 5 November 2005 (UTC)

A dye has been added to make drinks change colour, as well as taste salty. It is difficult to impossible to use as a date-rape drug unless a)your "victim" doesn't have taste buds, and b)doesn't even glance at the drink before taking it. This makes it very hard for those of us who are being treated for genuine medical conditions with this drug - it is in the same class as Morphine in Australia, and doctors are very hesitant to prescribe it - I have confirmed with a doctor that it was only classed the same as Morphine due to its notoriety.


The reason the above is not true is because of the popularity of cola. From what I can gather the dye added is deap blue. In clubs it's very dark generally so cola looks exactly the same as cola with blue dye. The strong taste of phoric acid masks any salty taste, as will the alcoholic drink. It's a sad fact but some people will take what they cant have Blonde2max 19:52, 18 June 2006 (UTC)

With all due respect, phosphoric acid does *not* mask the salty taste. It is clear that there is something wrong with the drink. Some blue or very dark alcoholic drinks may mask it, though, so don't leave one of those alone. While some people will take what they can't have, which goes for many other things than just sex, this does not offset the fact that there are significant medical reasons for this drug to be available. The only real problem is that victims rarely contact police or hospitals quickly enough (within 72 hours) to secure evidence of a rape, which is not exclusively a problem with psychoactive compounds. Zuiram 15:00, 18 September 2006 (UTC)
 

ramonmercado

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Coming in the form of a tasteless and odourless pill which is easily ground down into powder, rohypnol has gained notoriety as the 'date rape' drug, after victims have been incapacitated and sexually assaulted after having their drinks spiked. All traces of the drug disappear after 24 hours making prosecution difficult. Please note that rohypnol is not the only drug associated with date rape and there have been cases linked to GHB and other sedative drugs.

http://www.urban75.com/Drugs/rohypnol.html


The drugs leave your system quickly. Rohypnol stays in the body for several hours, and can be detected in the urine up to 72 hours after taking it. GHB leaves the body in 12 hours.

http://www.4woman.gov/faq/rohypnol.htm
 

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There's an interesting clinical study here - quite a lot of it's over my head, though from what i can follow of it, a lot of the issue seems to be that rohypnol metabolises close to completely into innocuous byproducts, which makes conclusive analysis difficult.

Different tests also appear to give different results, and are also dependent (obviously) on how much of the drug was ingested in the first place...

Clinical studies

None of the tests detected flunitrazepam/metabolite in samples from the volunteer taking the 1 mg dose.

With the 2 mg flunitrazepam oral dose, the post-administration urine samples produced positive results over the 72-hour collection period at 10 hours (EMIT II and Roche Online) and 19 hours (Roche Online).

Both EMIT II and RocheOnline detected flunitrazepam administration in the 8, 14 and 18-hour post-administration samples from the 3 mg dose. Roche Online also produced positive results for the 33 and 40-bours samples.
 

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Drinkers treated after 'spiking'
A number of suspected drink-spiking incidents, which resulted in several people being taken to hospital, are being investigated by police.
Drinkers from Pembrokeshire College and the nearby Glen Hotel in Haverfordwest had to be treated after falling ill.

An appeal has been made for anyone feeling ill after drinking at the two venues on Wednesday to contact their doctor immediately.

Dyfed-Powys Police said a man and a woman were being questioned.

A spokesman said: "Dyfed-Powys Police are investigating a number of incidents in which drinks have been spiked in and around the Glen Hotel, Merlins Hill, Haverfordwest and Pembrokeshire College in Haverfordwest.

"As a result a number of people have complained of feeling unwell and have been treated in hospital.

"One is still receiving treatment in hospital.

"Incidents such as this are very rare and the police believe that these incidents are contained to this area and two people are currently assisting police with their inquiries."

A substance has been sent to experts by detectives for testing.

Anyone who has any information should contact the police on 0845 330 2000.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/6179228.stm
 
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From Wikipedia
The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes.

Half-life is an important pharmacokinetic parameter and is usually denoted by the abbreviation t1/2.

Flunitrazepam has an elimination half life of 20-30 hours which means that if you present to emergency 24 hours after a suspected dose, theoretically 50% of the drug should still be present in your body and therefore still detectable.

A good friend of mine was dosed by mates once before they had a gig that he was drumming at, he is a big guy and was totally physically incapacitated and slid off his stool unable to move and had to be lifted off stage.
 

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Most spiking cases 'just drunk'

So-called "date rape" drugs include ketamine, Rohypnol and GHB
Most patients who believe they have had their drinks spiked test negative for drugs, research at Wrexham Maelor Hospital has found.
The study aimed to assess the scale of drink-spiking in the area and identify problems at specific clubs and pubs.

But the year-long investigation of hospital patients found less than one in five showed any trace of drugs.

The research concluded the patients' symptoms were more likely to be the result of excess alcohol.

So-called "date rape" drugs include ketamine, Rohypnol and GHB.

During the 12-month study there were 75 alleged cases of drink-spiking.

Patient samples were analysed for alcohol and drug levels, and information was recorded about where the alleged spiking had happened.

The alleged incidents took place in 23 different locations, although two locations accounted for 31% of the cases. Only 14% of the patients had informed the police.

The research, which was published in the Emergency Medicine Journal, found 65% were twice the legal drink-driving limit, and 24% were three times the drink-drive limit.


The investigation looked at 75 cases of alleged drink-spiking

Dr Peter Saul, a GP in Wrexham, said the report's findings "should not belittle the danger" people faced either from drink-spiking or drinking too much alcohol.

He told BBC Radio Wales: "There had always been a suspicion that people would say that their drinks had been spiked when perhaps they had misjudged how much alcohol they were taking.

"If you go home and your parents are there, and you are vomiting on the path, and you come in in a terrible state, you get sympathy if you say 'oh, my drink was spiked.'

"You don't get sympathy if you say 'we spent too long in the bar'."

Dr Saul said the report did not make it clear if people's drinks had been spiked by alcohol, as opposed to drugs.

Breathalysing

He said: "It could explain the figures of people with very high alcohol levels."

He added: "The message has to be to be careful, not just about having your drink spiked but the total amount of alcohol you have when you are going out for the night."

Professor Jonathan Shepherd is a Cardiff-based surgeon who has pioneered a method for hospital casualty units to compile statistics on the drink-related assaults.

He told the same programme: "It really puts to bed a myth that's very widely held that drinks are spiked when in reality they are not."

Prof Shepherd's research has included breathalysing up to 900 late-night drinkers in Cardiff city centre.

He said: "There is certainly a sizeable minority who are drinking huge amounts of alcohol.

"For all of us, it's a cautionary tale - we ought to be deciding beforehand how much are going to drink on a night out."

'Precautions'

However, Prof Shepherd acknowledged that drink-spiking was a still a risk, which he said was easier to prevent by drinking from a bottle rather than a large glass.

Dr Hywel Hughes, who led the study at the Wrexham Maelor Hospital, said the survey's results should not obscure the risks of drink spiking, as one-in-five people tested showed signs of "drugs of abuse".

He said: "The bigger picture is probably the alcohol but spiking does go on, so people do need to take precautions against that."


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wale ... 367037.stm
 

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Drug rape myth exposed as study reveals binge drinking

Drug rape myth exposed as study reveals binge drinking is to blame
17.02.07



Doctors tested 75 women who claimed their drinks had been spiked by date rape drugs, not one tested positive
Women who claim to be victims of 'date-rape' drugs such as Rohypnol have in fact been rendered helpless by binge-drinking, says a study by doctors.

They found no evidence that any woman seeking help from emergency doctors because their drinks were allegedly spiked had actually been given these drugs.

Around one in five tested positive for recreational drugs while two-thirds had been drinking heavily.

The findings further erode the theory that there is widespread use of Rohypnol and GHB, another drug said to be favoured by predatory rapists.

Last month a personal safety campaigner claimed that Rohypnol had never been used to assist a sexual assault in the UK. Doctors carrying out the latest study at the Wrexham Maelor Hospital said it was far more likely women were claiming their drinks had been spiked as an "excuse" for binge-drinking.

The 12-month study was based on 75 patients - mostly women - treated in casualty who told doctors their drinks had been tampered with in pubs or clubs.

But tests for drugs such as Rohypnol, GHB and ketamine found nothing, says the study published in the Emergency Medicine Journal.

It showed 65 per cent of women had 160mg of alcohol in their blood - twice the 80mg drink/drive limit - and a quarter were three times over the limit. Although all the patients denied taking drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine, one fifth tested positive.

Researcher Dr Hywel Hughes, an associate specialist in A&E said: "This study confirmed our suspicion that most of the patients with suspected drink-spiking would test negative for drugs. No ketamine, GHB or Rohypnol was found in the samples which suggest they are not commonly used to spike drinks.

"There has been a lot of media coverage in recent years, mainly focusing on just a few substances including Rohypnol and GHB, which has led to the perception that drinkspiking is a widespread practice. But most patients allegedly having a spiked drink tested negative for drugs misuse.

"Claiming their drink has been spiked may be used as an excuse by patients who have become incapacitated after the voluntary consumption of excess alcohol."

Dr Hughes said some women might have felt ashamed at ending up in casualty. "There seems to be greater awareness about the dangers of binge-drinking, which is where the emphasis should stay," he added.

Last month Julie Bentley, chief executive of the Suzy Lamplugh Trust, said many women fall victim to sexual assaults after being plied with alcohol. Commenting on claims that Rohypnol had played a part in sex attacks, she said: "As far as I am aware, there has never been a case of Rohypnol in this country found."

In the light of the latest research, Dr Peter Saul, a GP in Wrexham, said: "There had always been a suspicion that people would say that their drinks had been spiked when perhaps they had misjudged how much alcohol they were taking.

"If you go home and your parents are there, and you are vomiting on the path, and you come in in a terrible state, you get sympathy if you say, 'My drink was spiked'.

"You don't get sympathy if you say, 'We spent too long in the bar'."

He added: "The message has to be: be careful - not just about having your drink spiked - but how much alcohol you have."

http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/
 

Xanatico

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That could be quite controversial. But I don´t get wether they are talking about just people who came in to get their stomach pumped, or people who actually claim to be raped.
 

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My god, this case that has just come up in the news is grimly fascinating: the case of a man thought to be the UK's most prolific rapist with 'at least 190' separate victims. The tool, in this case, was GHB. Those figures from the opening post in 2005 need a radical revision.

Reynhard Sinaga is thought to be the UK's most prolific rapist ever. For several years, until he was caught in 2017, he preyed on young men enjoying a night out.
Princess Street, in the heart of Manchester's city centre, is rarely quiet.
If you follow it down from the impressive Victorian town hall on Albert Square, past bars, shops, restaurants, and converted textile warehouses, you reach the borders of two of the city's most popular destinations - Chinatown and the Gay Village.
Beyond that, you come to a stretch of road bordered by nightclubs - Factory, Fifth, Joshua Brooks - a big part of the city's vibrant nightlife.
With its close proximity to two of the city's universities, the road is also a popular area for student accommodation.
Continued at considerable length--not for the faint-hearted.
 

escargot

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My god, this case that has just come up in the news is grimly fascinating: the case of a man thought to be the UK's most prolific rapist with 'at least 190' separate victims. The tool, in this case, was GHB. Those figures from the opening post in 2005 need a radical revision.

Reynhard Sinaga is thought to be the UK's most prolific rapist ever. For several years, until he was caught in 2017, he preyed on young men enjoying a night out.
Princess Street, in the heart of Manchester's city centre, is rarely quiet.
If you follow it down from the impressive Victorian town hall on Albert Square, past bars, shops, restaurants, and converted textile warehouses, you reach the borders of two of the city's most popular destinations - Chinatown and the Gay Village.
Beyond that, you come to a stretch of road bordered by nightclubs - Factory, Fifth, Joshua Brooks - a big part of the city's vibrant nightlife.
With its close proximity to two of the city's universities, the road is also a popular area for student accommodation.
Continued at considerable length--not for the faint-hearted.
We know that area well. Frightening to think what was going on.
 

Ogdred Weary

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I've heard a number of stories, always at least second hand, where women thought they had had their drink spiked but were adamant nothing else had happened. I have wondered if in some of those cases, they had simply got hammered, maybe their drinks were spiked with other booze, maybe it was innocent and they simply drank too much. In one case, a friend of a friend was out drinking alone spoke to two men in a pub, joined their conversation and the next thing she knows, she wakes up with the hangover from hell, covered bruises in a police cell. The police said they had arrested her for being drunk, disorderly and violent, I think they had t forcibly restrain her. She was adamant her drink had been spiked and that she hadn't been molested but the police refused to do a drugs test. She'd never had a blackout like that or a history of violence etc. Apparently they said only reason the didn't press charges was for fear of her losing her job - I think she was a teacher. I have never met this woman and as I said is a FOAF tale, so don't know what to make of it. In another case, it was a friend's colleague and her husband noticed something was "up" with her when she got in, he was a sober outside observer as it were, in this case, it appears that nothing happened to the woman in question.

In both those cases, it does sound like their drinks were spiked, others were more vague and it's not my intention to dismiss the experience of anyone who has been drugged or worse.
 

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I was definitely spiked a couple of years ago, the mystery is why?

I'd had a few ales, nothing unusual, DJing at a 40th birthday party where I knew 99% of the people there. Finished up, packed the decks, lights etc, picked-up my record bag and left with MrsCarlos. Pissed but fine.

Called a cab, sat outside on some steps and waited. When it arrived, I tried to stand but my legs were like jelly, and I was flopping around like one of those inflatable guys outside garages in the States. Taxi driver refused to take us, so we had to walk about three miles back to the hotel.

I was carrying a big bag of vinyl (100 records - bloody heavy) but it felt like I was horizontal with my bag out behind me. Think 'Smooth Criminal' video but with a scarf made of records. I couldn't connect thoughts into anything sensible. Eventually got back with an understandably pissed off wife.

Slept like the dead. Next day I felt like I'd been run over.

My theory is that someone liked my DJing and wanted me to have a good night by shooshing my pint up.
 

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AlchoPwn

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I have a female friend who you'd generally class as a "butterface", and one evening at a nightclub she had her drink spiked and passed out in the club, only to wake up where she had been sitting, as whoever had roofied her subsequently saw her in better lighting and put her back where he found her. As to why she didn't go to the police, now that is something I don't understand.
 

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I
From September 2018:

"I started the evening with two bottles of Prosecco, then had three Jägerbombs, a pint of Snakebite, two Porn Star Martinis, four pints of lager and a Cheeky Vimto. Then [name] must have slipped me a roofy, because I woke up in bed with him."

https://forums.forteana.org/index.p...-anaesthetic-agents.59926/page-3#post-1781477

maximus otter
I'm a man who likes a drop of wine (chablis, pouilly-fuissé, oak-laden New World chardonnay, Champagne, prosecco etc) but two bottles of Prosecco and the rest – including five (FIVE!!!) pints – would put me in hospital or on the mortician's slab. Yep, must be the roofy! I know that's the point you're making but sheesh, using all my fingers and toes I run out of the number of units of alcohol in that evening out...
 
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James_H

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A slight tangent but related: I wonder about the alleged properties of scopolamine, a chemical agent apparently widely used to victimise people in Colombia and other South American countries.

The supposed effects are to make the victim tractable - 'like a zombie' - and amnesiac. So it is used by rapists but also in robberies where the victim will apparently happily withdraw all their money from the ATM, wake up somewhere and not remember a thing.

It's supposedly applied by blowing a powder into the victim's face. I'm skeptical as some of the stories sound like urban legends to me.
 

AlchoPwn

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A slight tangent but related: I wonder about the alleged properties of scopolamine, a chemical agent apparently widely used to victimise people in Colombia and other South American countries.
That is a good call James. Scopolamine is used for some surgeries and it seems to work as advertised. Correct dosage would be a problem.
 

James_H

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That is a good call James. Scopolamine is used for some surgeries and it seems to work as advertised. Correct dosage would be a problem.
I'm not sure about the method of administration, ie blowing a powder in the victim's face. It sounds inefficient and likely to backfire.

Like related deliriants it should produce amnesia though those also produce conspicuously unusual behaviour which wouldn't fly if you were trying to keep a drugged up zombie victim low profile while marching them to the ATM.

It should be widely available in that area because a lot of plants around there contain the drug.
 

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This is a case local to me from a few years ago. Basically, a student goes missing, can't be found for some weeks. His body is discovered some time later. High levels of GHB are detected.

A mother whose son was found dead with high levels of the drug GHB in his system is calling for the drug to be reclassified.

Donna O'Halloran's son David disappeared after a night out in Stirling city centre in January 2013.

The body of the 18-year-old mathematics student was found three months later in a wooded area above Bridge of Allan.

Toxicology tests showed he had high levels of GHB - a class C drug - in his system.

His mother, who believes his drink was spiked, wants the drug to be reclassified as a class A drug.
From this article on BBC website.

That's despite the actual toxicology report finding:

Tests on David’s body found he‘d had apparently high levels of GHB in his system for four months.
From this article.

I found myself conflicted about this one. I can fully sympathize with his mother's grief, but at the same time it seems that it was everyone's fault but her son's. The taxi driver who didn't deliver David right to his door - despite him wanting to walk the last distance home. The university for not taking better care of their students. The nightclub for asking him to leave when he'd seemingly had too much to drink (and for serving him prior to that). The person or persons unknown who supposedly spiked his drink.

Not her son; who necked a half bottle of vodka before going out clubbing with his mates in January, in Scotland, in temperatures that were -4°C, wearing just jeans, a t-shirt and a shirt.:(

More about the search, prior to the discovery of the body here, including the involvement of a psychic.:headbang:
 

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I found myself conflicted about this one. I can fully sympathize with his mother's grief, but at the same time it seems that it was everyone's fault but her son's. The taxi driver who didn't deliver David right to his door - despite him wanting to walk the last distance home. The university for not taking better care of their students. The nightclub for asking him to leave when he'd seemingly had too much to drink (and for serving him prior to that). The person or persons unknown who supposedly spiked his drink.

Not her son; who necked a half bottle of vodka before going out clubbing with his mates in January, in Scotland, in temperatures that were -4°C, wearing just jeans, a t-shirt and a shirt.
Yes. I guess no-one really wants to believe that a loved one could have made enough bad choices to actually lead to their own death. It's very sad. :(
 

AlchoPwn

Public Service is my Motto.
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I'm not sure about the method of administration, ie blowing a powder in the victim's face. It sounds inefficient and likely to backfire.
Agreed. On the other hand, the blowing of powders in people's face is normally there entirely for theatrical misdirection purposes, and normally amounts to a handful of tumeric, providing deniability before the law, but enhancing the reputation of the bokor when it still works. The actual poisoning is administered by other means, such as being placed inside the victim's pillowcase, in their shoes, pockets, socks, or similar methods. The person blowing the powder is there to draw attention and suspicion away from the actual poisoner. Tetrodotoxin, the zombifying agent, is destroyed by water, but volatile and can be absorbed thru the skin, but obviously inhalation or another mucus membrane is best. Some people have hypothesised a barrier cream to stop the bokor being poisoned, but it isn't necessary.
 
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