Dinosaurs: New Findings & Theories

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Cool Head Rex.

Tyrannosaurus rex, one of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs on the planet, had an air conditioner in its head, suggest scientists from the University of Missouri, Ohio University and University of Florida, while challenging over a century of previous beliefs.

In the past, scientists believed two large holes in the roof of a T. rex's skull—called the dorsotemporal fenestra—were filled with muscles that assist with jaw movements. In the past, scientists believed two large holes in the roof of a T. rex's skull—called the dorsotemporal fenestra—were filled with muscles that assist with jaw movements. But that assertion puzzled Casey Holliday, a professor of anatomy in the MU School of Medicine and lead researcher on the study. ...

Using thermal imaging—devices that translate heat into visible light—researchers examined alligators at the St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park in Florida. They believe their evidence offers a new theory and insight into the anatomy of a T. rex's head.

"An alligator's body heat depends on its environment," said Kent Vliet, coordinator of laboratories at the University of Florida's Department of Biology. "Therefore, we noticed when it was cooler and the alligators are trying to warm up, our thermal imaging showed big hot spots in these holes in the roof of their skull, indicating a rise in temperature. Yet, later in the day when it's warmer, the holes appear dark, like they were turned off to keep cool. This is consistent with prior evidence that alligators have a cross-current circulatory system—or an internal thermostat, so to speak."

https://phys.org/news/2019-09-rex-air-conditioner.html
 

EnolaGaia

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Giant pterosaur fossils in Canada have now been identified as a new species rivaling Quetzalcoatlus in size ...
Meet 'Cold Dragon of the North Winds,' the Giant Pterosaur That Once Soared Across Canadian Skies

Millions of years ago, a flying reptile as big as an airplane took flight in what is now Canada.

Now, this enormous species of giant pterosaur — part of a group known as azhdarchids — finally has a name: Cryodrakon boreas, drawing from the ancient Greek words that translate to "cold dragon of the north winds."

Fossils of Cryodrakon boreas were found decades ago, and were thought to belong to another North American azhdarchid: Quetzalcoatlus, one of the biggest flying animals of all time. But the discovery of additional fossils in recent years told scientists that the fossils represented a newfound species, and the first new species of giant pterosaur found in Canada.

Based on the size of one enormous neck bone thought to belong to an adult animal, the newly described pterosaur likely had a wingspan extending about 33 feet (10 meters) from tip to tip, making it comparable in size to its monstrous azhdarchid cousin Quetzalcoatlus, researchers reported in a new study. ...

All of the Cryodrakon fossils came from Dinosaur Provincial Park in Alberta, and date to approximately 77 million to 74 million years ago during the Cretaceous period (145.5 million to 65.5 million years ago), according to the study. ...
FULL STORY: https://www.livescience.com/pterosaur-biggest-flying-reptile.html
 

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Did mosasaurs do the breast stroke?

Date: September 23, 2019
Source: Geological Society of America

Mosasaurs were true sea monsters of late Cretaceous seas. These marine lizards -- related to modern snakes and monitor lizards -- grew as long as fifty feet, flashed two rows of sharp teeth, and shredded their victims with enormous, powerful jaws.

Now, new research suggests that mosasaurs had yet another potent advantage: a muscular breast stroke that may have added ambush-worthy bursts of speed.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190923140812.htm
 
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Teenage Mutant Dino-Turtle Ninjas.

BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA—Typically taller than four elephants and heftier than a jet airliner, sauropods are among the most famous of the dinosaurs. But scientists may have been wrong about one of their key features. Instead of lizardlike lips, the behemoths sported beaks akin to those of birds or turtles, researchers report here today at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. The dinos may have used these beaks, which encased large numbers of long, peglike teeth, to harvest the vast quantities of vegetation they required to reach record sizes.

The research helps answer a long-standing mystery, says study author Kayleigh Wiersma, a paleontologist at the University of Bonn in Germany. Since the 1930s, long rows of isolated sauropod teeth—still perfectly arranged in the position they would have been in the mouth during life—have been found embedded as fossils in rocks, but with not a scrap of fossil bone encasing them. “There must have been something holding them in place,” she says. “Otherwise they would have been scattered all around the dig site.”

Wiersma and her University of Bonn co-author, Martin Sander, first hinted at the possibility of a gum or beak structure in 2017. That was based on an analysis of two skulls of Camarasaurus. Now, they have studied seven sets of isolated tooth rows from a variety of sauropod species, including German “dwarf” sauropod Europasaurus, as well the groups that include well-known species such as Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus, and Apatosaurus.

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/201...ly_2019-10-10&et_rid=394299689&et_cid=3024899
 

Nemo

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Giant ‘iron dragon’ flying reptile with enormous jaws and razor-sharp teeth found in Australia.


The 96-million-year-old skeleton of a giant flying reptile has been discovered under a sheep farm in Australia.

Palaeontologists believe the remains belong to a pterosaur, the earliest vertebrates known to have evolved powered flight.

Pterosaur means “winged lizard” in Greek.



The creature had a 4-metre wingspan, a 60cm long crested head and elongated jaws with spiked teeth.

“This is based on comparisons with similar pterosaurs. It would have been an apex aerial predator,” said Adele Pentland, a PHD student and palaeontologist at Swinburne University of Technology.
(C) The Independent. '19.
 

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Newly Discovered Polar Dinosaurs Wore Feathers as Fluffy, Insulated Coats

Source: syfy. com
Date: 18 November, 2019

In a recent treasure of paleontological proportions, an international crew of scientists in Australia has unearthered an ancient stash of 118-million-year-old fossilized dinosaur and bird feathers from a muddy prehistoric lake deposit that was once located in the polar circle.

https://www-syfy-com.cdn.ampproject...eathered-dinosaurs-polar-theropods-discovered
 

Sharon Hill

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Newly Discovered Polar Dinosaurs Wore Feathers as Fluffy, Insulated Coats

Source: syfy. com
Date: 18 November, 2019

In a recent treasure of paleontological proportions, an international crew of scientists in Australia has unearthered an ancient stash of 118-million-year-old fossilized dinosaur and bird feathers from a muddy prehistoric lake deposit that was once located in the polar circle.

https://www-syfy-com.cdn.ampproject.org/v/s/www.syfy.com/syfywire/fluffy-feathered-dinosaurs-polar-theropods-discovered?amp_js_v=a2&amp_gsa=1&amp&usqp=mq331AQCKAE=#referrer=https://www.google.com&amp_tf=From %1$s&ampshare=https://www.syfy.com/syfywire/fluffy-feathered-dinosaurs-polar-theropods-discovered
It seems too weird to access news from the Science Fiction channel. Here is a better link.
First evidence of feathered polar dinosaurs found in Australia

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191112110235.htm
 

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It seems too weird to access news from the Science Fiction channel. Here is a better link.
Cheers Sharon, exactly the help required with these newsfeed links - there's just not time to follow every single one up to its original souce before highlighting same.:pcheers:
 

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Dinosaur skull turns paleontology assumptions on their head

Source: phys.org/University of Alberta
Date: 4 hours ago

A team of researchers at the University of Alberta has unearthed a well-preserved Styracosaurus skull—and its facial imperfections have implications for how paleontologists identify new species of dinosaurs.

[...]

Nicknamed Hannah, the dinosaur was a Styracosaurus—a horned dinosaur over five metres in length with a fan of long horns. UAlberta paleontologists led by Robert Holmes, professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, have learned much from those horns—because they aren't symmetrical.

https://phys-org.cdn.ampproject.org...-dinosaur-skull-paleontology-assumptions.html
 

Jim

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Dinosaur skull turns paleontology assumptions on their head

Source: phys.org/University of Alberta
Date: 4 hours ago

A team of researchers at the University of Alberta has unearthed a well-preserved Styracosaurus skull—and its facial imperfections have implications for how paleontologists identify new species of dinosaurs.

[...]

Nicknamed Hannah, the dinosaur was a Styracosaurus—a horned dinosaur over five metres in length with a fan of long horns. UAlberta paleontologists led by Robert Holmes, professor in the Department of Biological Sciences, have learned much from those horns—because they aren't symmetrical.

https://phys-org.cdn.ampproject.org/v/s/phys.org/news/2019-11-dinosaur-skull-paleontology-assumptions.amp?amp_js_v=a2&amp_gsa=1&usqp=mq331AQCKAE=#referrer=https://www.google.com&amp_tf=From %1$s&ampshare=https://phys.org/news/2019-11-dinosaur-skull-paleontology-assumptions.html
Seems (like the article mentioned states) that horned dinosaurs (ceratopsians) had both regular and irregulars type horns like many antlered mammals.
 
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Early meat-eating dinosaur revealed via spectacular fossil

Source: nationalgeographic.com
Date: 3 December, 2019

The nearly complete skeleton belongs to an apex predator of the Triassic that hunted the ancestors of today’s mammals.

[...]

Unearthed in the southern Brazilian town of São João do Polêsine, the fossils would turn out to belong to one of the oldest carnivorous dinosaurs known in the world. Dated to 230 million years ago, the newly named Gnathovorax cabreirai lived in a forested area during the Triassic period, when South America was still part of the supercontinent Pangaea.

https://relay-nationalgeographic-co...errer=https://www.google.com&amp_tf=From %1$s
 
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