Justified & Ancient
- Apr 16, 2012
Anne Frank may have been discovered by chance, new study says
World-famous wartime diarist Anne Frank may have been discovered by chance and not because her hiding place was betrayed, a new theory suggests.
The Anne Frank House museum in Amsterdam believes the address could have been raided over ration fraud.
Researchers say the police who found the secret annexe may not have been looking for the eight Jews there.
The raid on Prinsengracht 263 saw all of those in hiding transported to the Auschwitz death camps.
Summarising its findings, the Anne Frank House said: "The question has always been: Who betrayed Anne Frank and the others in hiding? This explicit focus on betrayal, however, limits the perspective on the arrest."
Shortly before the raid, an anonymous caller supposedly revealed details of the secret annexe to the Sicherheitsdienst or SD (German Security Service) - but the study's authors have questioned this account.
Using Anne's diary entries from March 1944, researchers found that ration coupon fraud and illegal working activities may have triggered the fateful raid.
From 10 March 1944, Anne repeatedly wrote about the arrest of two men who dealt in illegal ration cards. She called the pair "B" and "D" - which stood for Martin Brouwer and Pieter Daatzelaar.
The pair were salesmen for a firm based at Prinsengracht 263, where Anne's father Otto Frank also had his business - and where the family went into hiding.
Anne writes on March 14: "B and D have been caught, so we have no coupons..."
This shows that the Frank family got at least some of their food coupons clandestinely from these salesmen.
Analysing police reports and judicial documents, the researchers also found that the police who discovered Anne and her companions were not generally employed to hunt down Jews in hiding.
Instead, they had worked on cases involving cash, securities and jewellery.
The study also notes that the police spent over two hours at the property - longer than it should have taken to arrest those cornered in the annexe.
Other evidence shows that people linked to Prinsengracht 263 had been punished by the Netherlands' Nazi occupiers for evading work.
"A company where people were working illegally and two sales representatives were arrested for dealing in ration coupons obviously ran the risk of attracting the attention of the authorities," the researchers wrote.
No firm conclusions have ever been drawn about who betrayed Anne Frank and her family to the Nazis.
The young writer ultimately died of typhus in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, aged 15, just weeks before its liberation. Her father Otto was the only one of the annexe's eight occupants to survive World War Two.
Cambridge student discovers hidden life of Renaissance spy
Believed for years to be a garden designer, new research into Constantino de’ Servi suggests covert activity
The garden design it is believed Constantino used as cover to act as matchmaker and spy. Photograph: By kind permission of the Ministero dei Beni e delle Attività Culturali e del Turismo
Something odd emerged as a Cambridge student began to research the work of a Renaissance garden designer: although the 16th century Italian artist, sculptor and designer Costantino de’ Servi travelled constantly and never seemed to be short of a bob, he seemed to have completed very few gardens - or any other kind of work.
Wherever there was trouble in Europe, however, be it wars rumbling, alliances being forged, or regime change threatened, de’ Servi seemed to pop up. Then the historian discovered that wherever the supposed gardener travelled and whoever he was nominally working for – and he got as far west as the court of James I in London, and as far east as Persia – he remained on the payroll of one of the richest and most powerful families in Europe, the Medici of Florence. Like any good modern spy who keeps a low profile, there is no known portrait of him.
“In the beginning as I trawled through his correspondence in the archives in Florence, expecting to find evidence of many wonderful Renaissance gardens he had worked on, and found nothing, I was very disappointed. Then as I followed the paper trail, I began to wonder if there was something more interesting going on,” said Davide Martino, a history student at St John’s College, Cambridge.
“I’m not sure you could precisely call him a spy in modern terms,” Martino said. “But his role meant that he could go anywhere and gain intimate access, in any court in Europe, and I think it’s reasonable to assume that he was constantly feeding useful information back to his paymasters in Florence.” ...
One of the few pieces of work that de’ Servi definitely completed was a garden design for Henry, Prince of Wales, son and heir of James I – and far more popular than his father. The project came, as so often in de’ Servi’s career, at a politically sensitive time: the Medici were trying to arrange a marriage between the prince and one of their family, Caterina.
Neolithic figurine, over 7,000 years old, unearthed at Turkey’s Çatalhöyük
Archaeologists at Turkey's neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in central Anatolia have unearthed a "unique" complete female figurine, The Ministry of Culture and Tourism said on Tuesday.
The statuette, measuring 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) long and weighing one kilogram (2.2 pounds), is considered unique due to its intact form and fine craftsmanship; it dates back to about 5500-8000 BC, a statement said.
The figurine, which is made of marmoreal stone and considered to be part of a ritual, was discovered by the international team of archaeologists working on site led by Professor Ian Hodder, anthropologist at Stanford University in the U.S. ...
The stump ends on the legs suggest (to me, anyway) that this figurine was mounted onto a display board during 'life'.Isn't it just another Venus Figurine?
The Glasgow streets named after merchants who had links to slavery should be changed, a senior council figure has claimed. Bailie Dr Nina Baker has called for a “symbolic renaming of selected streets” to coincide with Anti-Slavery Day in October.
Several streets, mainly in the Merchant City area, are named after the 18th Century Tobacco Lords who used their vast wealth made from slave-grown produce in the tobacco plantations of the US and West Indies to buy up land in Glasgow during the mid to late 1700s.
Merchants who had streets named after them include Andrew Buchanan, John Glassford, Archibald Ingram and James Dunlop. Virginia, Jamaica, Tobago and Antigua streets recall the locations of their estates and their western trading partners.
Dr Baker, a Green Party councillor, said she had been inspired by a move in Spain to rename streets named after figures from Franco’s fascist regime. She said: “Most of the streets in the Merchant City are named after the Tobacco Lords who made their money on the backs of slavery. “I think people are now reasonably aware of the story but I don’t think people walking down these roads will realise the streets are named after these people. “In France, you will see signs under street names telling you who they were named after. In this country, you generally have no idea because of the way the traditional streets signs have been designed.”
She said street names could be temporarily renamed after key figures in the Glasgow abolitionist movement as well as women such as Mary Barbour, a councillor and campaigner who led the rent strike of 1915. Dr Baker, in a motion to be put forward to Full Council last week, said: “Many of our best known streets bear the names of the wealthy slave owners from Glasgow’s past and that, whilst these serve to remind us to strive to avoid past horrors, there are few streets named to recognise those who campaigned against them and even fewer streets named to honour the achievements of women in the city.” Dr Baker, whose motion was not heard due to time contraints, called for the council “to implement a symbolic renaming of selected streets, to honour important women from Glasgow’s past and Glasgwegians who campaigned for the abolition of slavery for Anti- Slavery Day 2017 and also to review its policy on the naming of streets.” The ‘Tobacco Lords’ created vast wealth from slave-grown produce with the merchants quickly monopolising the trade. John Glassford owned plantations and 21 tobacco stores in Virginia and Maryland and ran a fleet of ships to move the product, for example. It has been reported that 47 million pounds of tobacco leaf passed through Glasgow every year, with the city overtaking London as its chief importer, with the bulk then being reshipped to the rest of Europe. The Merchant City is dominated by the wealth of the Tobacco Lords. The Gallery of Modern Art, on the western edge of the district, was the family home built for William Cunninghame whose family’s estate in Jamaica reportedly held some 300 slaves. Around 30 ships which left Glasgow during the 1700s were involved directly in slave voyages, it is understood. The figure rises to 5,000 for those ships leaving Liverpool.
An old pub in Falmouth has just undergone a long refurbishment. It used to be called the King's Head, but from now it becomes just the Kings. Sad, I think.
The pub stands next to the church of King Charles the Martyr, and Charles was beheaded by the Roundheads at the end of the English Civil War. That's what the pub name referred to, but now it it is merely an unpecified group of Kings. At Xmas people will wonder if it's something to do with We Three Kings (of Orient are).
Pub article: http://www.falmouthpacket.co.uk/new...rmation__The_Kings_is_to_reopen_this_weekend/
That really annoys me - a pointless change of name for the worse. I suspect the hand of corporate re-branding bollocks strikes again. What's wrong with tradition?
Renaming pubs always pisses me off
Yes, exactly, I don't really see why it's political correctness, if the name amendment isn't a 'correction' of some supposedly-inappropriate title.why is it PC?
I thought I'd heard of a Black Buoy pub in Dorset, but a web search didn't find it. However, it did turn up a Black Buoy pub in Wivenhoe, Essex, by the river Colne, a place I once knew well. But one web page on it says it was formerly The Black Boy, so I guess that one did get PC'd!Hull also has The Black Boy ( a great little place, real ales and a haunted front room). I would have thought it a prime candidate for a PC renaming but I don't recall hearing of any pressure to do so. Thankfully!
I thought I'd heard of a Black Buoy pub in Dorset, but a web search didn't find it. However, it did turn up a Black Buoy pub in Wivenhoe, Essex, by the river Colne, a place I once knew well. But one web page on it says it was formerly The Black Boy, so I guess that one did get PC'd!
When I started sailing black buoys were used to mark the starboard side of a channel. But in 1980 starboard hand marks were changed to green bouys.
(More than you probably need to know here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_mark )
But I've never seen a pub called the Green Buoy!