History Rewritten

GerdaWordyer

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Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman knew this during the American Civil War:

"We are not only fighting armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor, feel the hard hand of war, as well as their organized armies. I know that this recent movement of mine through Georgia has had a wonderful effect in this respect. Thousands who had been deceived by their lying papers into the belief that we were being whipped all the time, realized the truth, and have no appetite for a repetition of the same experience."

"War is cruelty. There is no use trying to reform it. The crueller it is, the sooner it will be over."

Remember that - even after the bombs were dropped - the emperor's speech to his people announcing the cessation of hostilities included the almost comic evasion, "...the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage", and didn't even include an unequivocal declaration that Japan had, in fact, surrendered.

maximus otter
Hurrah! Hurrah! We bring the jubilee!
Hurrah! Hurrah! The flag that makes you free!
So we sang the chorus from Atlanta to the sea,
While we were marching through Georgia.
I'm happy the Union won. I'm a southerner with racist, traitor ancestors. Why can't U.S. southerners be as mature as most Germans, who know how shameful their past is?
 

Swifty

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acar01.jpg
 

ramonmercado

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Alfred didn't found the Royal Navy!

Alfred the Great, King of Wessex from 871 and King of the Anglo-Saxons from 886 to 899, is widely touted as establishing England's first Royal fleet but research led by Flinders Medieval Studies Ph.D. candidate Matt Firth has found evidence that the Anglo-Saxons' first recorded naval victory occurred 20 years before Alfred was crowned King of Wessex and 24 years before his first recorded naval victory.

The research—Kingship and Maritime Power in 10th‐Century England, by Matthew Firth and Erin Sebo—has been published in the International Journal of Nautical Archeology.

"The nationalistic rhetoric that as grown up around the Royal Navy and its central role in British Empire identity since at least the 18th century has given rise to some questionable 'facts' around its origins," says Firth.

"The idea that Alfred founded the navy is widespread—and the claim has been uncritically reproduced by such reputable authorities as the National Museum of the Royal Navy, Encyclopædia Britannica and BBC's history webpage."

https://phys.org/news/2020-08-medieval-texts-reveal-false-royal.html
 

maximus otter

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'Your Country Needs You' - The myth about the First World War poster that 'never existed'
It is perhaps the best known and most enduring image of the First World War: the commanding, moustached face of Lord Kitchener, his accusing, pointing finger and the urgent slogan “Your country needs YOU”.
3:10PM BST 02 Aug 2013

The picture is credited with encouraging millions of men to sign up to fight in the trenches, many of them never to return.
But new research has found that no such poster was actually produced during the war and that the image was never used for official recruitment purposes. In fact, it only became popular and widely-used after the conflict ended.

James Taylor, who has researched the history of recruitment posters, said the popular understanding of the design and the impact it had was almost entirely mistaken.
“It’s widely believed to have been the most popular design of First World War, instrumental in recruiting millions of men. But the truth is: that simply wasn’t the case. It’s an urban myth,” he added.

As part of his research, he studied the official records of the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, the body responsible for recruitment posters, in the National Archives at Kew.
These documents provided details of the production of almost 200 official recruitment posters produced during the war and indicated which ones were deemed popular. The so-called ‘Your Country Needs You’ poster is absent. He also analysed thousands of photographs of street scenes and recruitment offices from the period in search of the image, again, without finding it.

In his new book, Your Country Needs You, Mr Taylor traced the picture back to its origins, on 5th September 1914, barely a month after the start of the war.
On that day, the image was used on the front cover of the popular magazine London Opinion, beneath the masthead, and alongside two promotional offers: “This paper insures you for £1,000” and “50 photographs of YOU for a shilling”.

It had been designed by Alfred Leete, a graphic artist, who had adapted a portrait of Kitchener to give him the distinctive pointing finger. The slogan was adapted from the official call to arms, which said: “Your King and Country Need You”.

In a subsequent edition, a week later, the magazine, which had a circulation of almost 300,000, said readers would be able to buy postcards of the image for 1s. 4d for 100.
Despite this, Mr Taylor has not been able to track down any surviving examples in public or private collections. He is now offering a £100 reward for anyone who can find the first. 8)

Mr Taylor, who will present his research at an event at the National Army Museum, west London, next month, found that the original artwork for the magazine was acquired by the Imperial War Museum in 1917 and was mistakenly catalogued as part of the poster collection, contributing to later misunderstanding about its use.

“There has been a mass, collective misrecollection. The image’s influence now is absolutely out of all kilter with the reality of its initial impact. It has taken on a new kind of life. It is such a good image and saying that it was later seized upon. Some many historians and books have used it and kept repeating how influential it was, that people have come to accept it.”

This “myth” surrounding the poster echoes that around the “Keep Calm and Carry On” sign, which has been widely reproduced in recent years. That poster, designed in 1939, had limited distribution and no public display.

Mr Taylor’s book shows how the Kitchener image did inspire similar posters, which were used, including one, which was produced by LO, with the word BRITONS, above the same picture of the Field Marshal pointing, with the words “wants YOU – Join Your Country’s Army!”, beneath, and the words ‘God Save The King’ printed along the bottom.

However, Mr Taylor said there was no evidence the poster was particularly popular or a dominant design of the war, as some historians have claimed.

The only occasion in which the image and the wording did appear in poster form was an elaborate design, when the words and picture appear, in a smaller scale, below five flags and surrounded by details or rates of pay and other information, including the additional slogan – “Your Country is Still Calling. Fighting Men! Fall In!!”. The effect is very different from the image of popular imagination and again, Mr Taylor found no evidence it was particularly widespread or popular at the time.

He found that the most popular poster of the era, in terms of numbers produced, did feature Kitchener, but without the pointing finger and featuring a 30-word extract from a speech he had made.

The book also shows how the image and slogan has been adapted for use in other countries, from the United States to the Soviet Union.

Leete’s original image and slogan, which are not covered by copyright, is now sold on aprons, bookmarks, fridge magnets, oven gloves, postcards, towels and T-shirts. The slogan remains a popular political phrase. David Cameron used it in his first party conference speech after becoming prime minister.

Horatio Kitchener had been appointed Secretary of State for War at the outbreak of the conflict - the 99th anniversary of which is this weekend - and correctly predicted that victory would take several years and require huge new armies.
He instigated a huge recruitment campaign to form “Kitchener’s Army”, or the “New Army” – whose men were later to die in campaigns such as the Somme.

He was already the country’s most famous soldier, a recognisable and influential figure having served in a number of Imperial campaigns, including in the Sudan, and South Africa, during the Second Boer War.

He died two years before the end of the First World War when he was travelling to Russia on a diplomatic mission, aboard the warship HMS Hampshire. The vessel struck a mine and sank west of the Orkney Islands. Kitchener, his staff, and 643 of the crew of 655 were drowned or died of exposure. Survivors who saw him in his final moments testified to his outward calm and resolution.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/worl ... isted.html

The story of “that poster”, and a potted bio of Alfred Leete.

maximus otter
 

Mikefule

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Similarly with the 2nd World War "Keep Calm and Carry On" poster. This was produced in 11 different sizes, and 2.5 million copies were produced, but only a handful (some sources suggest only 2 known examples) were ever displayed. It was certainly not a common sight or part of the national consciousness at the time of the war.

An unused example of the Keep Calm and Carry On poster was rediscovered in 2000. From there, the meme grew.

In a slightly different way, the so-called "Confederate flag" was never the "national" or "official" flag of the Confederacy. It was a battle flag, used in specific contexts in a varity of versions. Several designs for a "national flag" were considered but not adopted. The battle flag (famously painted on the roof of the General Lee in The Dukes of Hazzard) only came to be regarded as a symbol of the rebel states long after the civil war had ended.
 

Kondoru

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The largest member of the Auk family was never called The Great Auk, when alive.

It had regional names, in Iceland it was the Garefowl.
 

Mythopoeika

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The largest member of the Auk family was never called The Great Auk, when alive.
It only became a bit of a legend when it died?
 

Cochise

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In a slightly different way, the so-called "Confederate flag" was never the "national" or "official" flag of the Confederacy. It was a battle flag, used in specific contexts in a varity of versions. Several designs for a "national flag" were considered but not adopted. The battle flag (famously painted on the roof of the General Lee in The Dukes of Hazzard) only came to be regarded as a symbol of the rebel states long after the civil war had ended.
For a long time from the 60's (at least) until quite recently it became just a general signal of a rebel or rebel organisation, not necessarily with any connection the the Confederate cause. A lot of bike clubs used it. It got very tied up with rock'n'roll and rockabilly as well.

And it was, as you say, never the flag of the Confederacy as such.
 

Squail

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The largest member of the Auk family was never called The Great Auk, when alive.

It had regional names, in Iceland it was the Garefowl.

I seem to recall that in Charles Kingsley's The Water Babies, there's a "walk-on part" as it were, for a character called The Last of the Garefowl.
 

Kondoru

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Yup, Garefowl in Icelandic

`Penguin` in Welsh (Dunno where it got that, not been seen in Wales for a long time, but there are archaeological remains)

And they describe `The King and Queen of the Guillemots` on Lundy.

In this country though remains have been found in many places they are mostly associated with the Isle of Man, St Kilda and the Orkneys.
 

PeteByrdie

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Nosmo King

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Whatever happened to the Brontosaurus, when i was a kid the two big plant eating dinos were the Diplodocus and the Brontosausus, now it seems to be called Brachiosaurus, i looked it up and its aparently down to genus of dinosaur vs genus of lizard, but you never hear the name Brontsaurus in relation to dinos these days only in relation to the extendable platforms the fire brigade use.
 

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Whatever happened to the Brontosaurus, when i was a kid the two big plant eating dinos were the Diplodocus and the Brontosausus, now it seems to be called Brachiosaurus, i looked it up and its aparently down to genus of dinosaur vs genus of lizard, but you never hear the name Brontsaurus in relation to dinos these days only in relation to the extendable platforms the fire brigade use.
I grew up learning in school about the Brontosaurus as well .. is this one for the Manella effect thread or is it that they've been re classified?

edit: the Brontosaurus is still alive on wikipedia .. Brontosaurus - Wikipedia
 

Nosmo King

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I grew up learning in school about the Brontosaurus as well .. is this one for the Manella effect thread or is it that they've been re classified?
All i know is what i read about the genus classifications.

"The main difference between Brachiosaurus and Brontosaurus is that the Brachiosaurus is a genus of dinosaur and Brontosaurus is a genus of reptiles (fossil)."

https://www.askdifference.com/brachiosaurus-vs-brontosaurus/

As to whether there was a memo sent out to professionals some time in the late 80's early 90's telling them to only refer to the beast as Brachiosaurus from nowon i cant say, but i havent heard Brontosaurus used in relation to the big small headed dino for a long time.
 

PeteByrdie

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Whatever happened to the Brontosaurus, when i was a kid the two big plant eating dinos were the Diplodocus and the Brontosausus, now it seems to be called Brachiosaurus, i looked it up and its aparently down to genus of dinosaur vs genus of lizard, but you never hear the name Brontsaurus in relation to dinos these days only in relation to the extendable platforms the fire brigade use.
You're opening a can of worms with both of these dinosaurs. If I remember correctly, most depictions of brachiosaurus are based on a close relative, although I can't remember why. Brontosaurus became famous, then became an invalid taxon because (I think) it was actually the previously described apatosaurus, but now it's been separated again. Both these stories are complicated and I lack the time to do a deep dive.
 

EnolaGaia

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This Slate article describes the extent to which the Japanese language edition of Wikipedia consistently whitewashes or omits references to Japanese war crimes in WW2. More generally, it seems other non-English Wikipedia editions are similarly manipulated.
Non-English Editions of Wikipedia Have a Misinformation Problem

During World War II, Unit 731 of the Japanese military undertook horrific medical experimentation in Manchukuo (Northeast China). Among other things, members of Unit 731 intentionally infected people with the plague as part of an effort to develop bioweapons. The unit’s crimes have been well documented.

But if you read the Japanese Wikipedia page on Unit 731 in January, you wouldn’t get the full story. The article said that it is “a theory” that human experiments actually took place. It was just one example of the whitewashing of war crimes on Japanese Wikipedia, as I discovered when I was researching the war.

Around the same time, Wikipedia celebrated its 20th birthday and received praise in the U.S. and U.K. media for the accuracy of its articles. But the coverage focused on the English version, even though Wikipedia is just as influential in other languages. Japanese Wikipedia is the most visited edition of Wikipedia after English. ...

If you look at “The Nanjing Massacre ...” page on Japanese Wikipedia, the name has been changed to “The Nanjing Incident ..., and it says, “The Chinese side calls it the Nanjing Massacre, but the truth of the incident is still unknown.” It includes no pictures of the massacre or events leading up to it, even though such pictures exist. One of the most troubling is the page on “Comfort Women” a euphemism for the mostly Korean women who were forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese military. The page uses the word “baishun ...,” meaning “prostitution,” to describe them, implying that they were not forced. ...

FULL STORY: https://slate.com/technology/2021/03/japanese-wikipedia-misinformation-non-english-editions.html
 
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