Mesolithic Finds

Kingsize Wombat

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#31
Always safer to eat deep-fried smoked cod.

Evidence that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in Ireland may have harmed their health by under-cooking their fish has been uncovered by researchers examining samples from a 7,500-year-old lakeside site in Co Longford.
I thought tapeworm was very common until quite recently - and not considered all that harmful?
 
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#32
I thought tapeworm was very common until quite recently - and not considered all that harmful?
They're not exactly symbiotes:

Symptoms may vary depending on the type of tapeworm, and they may include the following:

  • eggs, larvae, or segments from the tapeworm in stools
  • abdominal pain
  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • general weakness
  • inflammation of the intestine
  • diarrhea
  • weight loss
  • altered appetite
  • sleeping difficulties this may be as a result of other symptoms.
  • dizziness
  • convulsions in severe cases.
  • malnutrition
  • vitamin B12 deficiency in very rare cases
Complications
The risk of complications depends on several factors, including the type of tapeworm and whether or not the patient receives treatment:

  • Cysticercosis: If a human ingests pork tapeworm eggs there is a risk of larvae infection. The larvae can exit the intestine and infect tissues and organs elsewhere in the body, resulting in lesions or cysts.
  • Neurocysticercosis: This is a dangerous complication of pork tapeworm infection. The brain and nervous system are affected. The patient may have headaches, vision problems, seizures, meningitis, and confusion. In very severe cases the infection can be fatal.
  • Echinococcosis, or hydatid disease: The echinococcus tapeworm can cause an infection called echinococcosis. The larvae leave the gut and infect organs, most commonly the liver. The infection can result in large cysts, which place pressure on nearby blood vessels and affect circulation. In severe cases, surgery or liver transplantation is required.

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/170461.php
 

AlchoPwn

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#33
They're not exactly symbiotes
Well, true, but the problems associated with them largely depends on the species of worm. Our ancestors no doubt benefitted from the fact that they act as a second layer of poison protection, supporting the role of the liver in removing poisons. In the bad old days humans gained a decent level of protection from bad food and dirty water thanks to these parasites.

For the love of trivia, here is the Wikipedia historical timeline of deworming:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_deworming
 
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#34
Interesting new finds could rewrite a piece of prehistory.

A previously unrecorded collection of thousands of artefacts found around the Waterford Estuary indicate what would be one of the oldest settlements in Ireland, stretching back up to 10,000 years, archaeologists have said.

Surveys were carried out on items found at Creadan Head, near Dunmore East, Co Waterford, earlier this summer. The artefacts, which included flint tools, were originally collected by local man Noel McDonagh over a period of almost four decades.

The archaeologists are confident they stretch back to the Mesolithic Period, also known as the Middle Stone Age.

Dr Peter Woodman, late emeritus professor of archaeology at University College Cork, had worked on the Creadan site before he died last year. The baton has since been taken up by Dr Stanton Green of Monmouth University in the US.

In a statement from Dr Green and Dr Joseph Schuldenrein, a senior geoarcheology researcher in New York, they say some of the artefacts found at Creadan Head are more than 10,000 years old.

“Every indication then was that people did come to Waterford as early, if not earlier than, people came to the north and west of Ireland. This understanding changes Irish prehistory, and this proposed project aims to verify this.”

https://www.irishtimes.com/culture/...-settlement-1.3603628?localLinksEnabled=false
 

EnolaGaia

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#35
New research indicates Mesolithic groups were living at higher elevations more persistently and far earlier than previously suspected. Such groups were inhabiting high mountain environments during the last Ice Age.

This newly discovered evidence for the earliest known such alpine Stone Age habitation was found in Ethiopia, of all places ...
Earliest Evidence of Human Mountaineers Found in Ethiopia

Ancient humans lived off giant mole rats high in the mountains of Ethiopia to survive the last ice age, a new study finds.

Previous research had suggested that high-altitude regions such as Tibet and the Andes were among the last places peopled by humans. The air is low in oxygen, resources are scarce and the weather can get harsh.

However, in increasing numbers, archaeological finds in high places across the globe have recently begun showing that humans might have colonized high altitudes earlier than previously thought. For example, a jawbone unearthed in a holy cave in China reveals that an extinct, mysterious human lineage known as the Denisovans made its way to the high Tibetan Plateau as early as 160,000 years ago. Still, although those findings suggested the presence of humans in these areas, they said little as to whether people actually dwelled there. ...

Now, scientists working in Ethiopia have uncovered what they said is the earliest evidence to date of prehistoric mountaineers, ones who made a home at great heights during the last ice age more than 30,000 years ago.

"The most exciting finding is the fact that prehistoric people repeatedly, over millennia, spent considerable amounts of time in high altitudes at a residential site and actively, deliberately made use of the available Afro-alpine resources," study co-author Götz Ossendorf, an archaeologist at the University of Cologne in Germany, told Live Science. ...

In the new study, researchers trekked on foot and by pack horse up to a rocky outcrop near the settlement of Fincha Habera in the Bale Mountains in southern Ethiopia, which is located about 11,380 feet (3,469 meters) above sea level. ...

Reaching up to nearly 14,400 feet (4,400 m) above sea level, the Bale Mountains are rather inhospitable — the air is thin, temperatures fluctuate sharply and it rains often. As such, it was previously assumed that humans settled in this area only very recently and for brief spans of time, Glaser said.

The scientists unearthed numerous signs — such as stone artifacts, burnt animal bones, clay fragments and a glass bead — that the rocky outcrop was once inhabited. To find out more about the site, they analyzed sediment deposited in the soil there to date its age and glean details about how the people there lived. ...

Surprisingly, carbon dating revealed the earliest artifacts at the site dated sometime between 47,000 and 31,000 years ago. As such, this rock shelter was active during the last glacial period, colloquially often called the last ice age, when vast ice sheets reaching up to miles thick covered large portions of the planet. ...

"At that time, a large part of the Bale Mountains — about 265 square kilometers [100 square miles] was covered by ice," study co-author Alexander Groos, a glaciologist at the University of Bern in Switzerland, told Live Science. "Glaciers were flowing from a central ice cap down into the valleys."

These findings are the earliest evidence of prehistoric humans residing at high altitudes, the researchers said. ...
FULL STORY: https://www.livescience.com/earliest-evidence-human-mountaineers.html
 

Mungoman

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#36
New research indicates Mesolithic groups were living at higher elevations more persistently and far earlier than previously suspected. Such groups were inhabiting high mountain environments during the last Ice Age.

This newly discovered evidence for the earliest known such alpine Stone Age habitation was found in Ethiopia, of all places ...

FULL STORY: https://www.livescience.com/earliest-evidence-human-mountaineers.html

That leaves me scratching my head EG.
 

EnolaGaia

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#37
My guess is that the global cooling and glaciation negatively impacted the lowlands' climate and ecology to the point dedicated hunters had to progressively retreat to the highlands / mountains, where they eventually developed a sustainable lifestyle. In addition to cooling temperatures everywhere, major glaciations tended to lock up lots of water in ice. Deteriorating hunting and foraging conditions in the lowlands may have resulted as much from drier conditions as from colder weather.

Maybe their preferred prey migrated elsewhere, and some groups chose to follow the remaining prey into the mountains rather than migrate who-knows-how-far away to chase the emigrating prey at lower elevations.
 

EnolaGaia

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#39
Here's another news item about the Bale Mountains discoveries:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190808152500.htm

This article offers some suggested explanations for why groups may have taken to the icy mountains ...

... The analyses may also have uncovered the reasons for this: during the last ice age the settlement of Fincha Habera was located beyond the edge of the glaciers. According to Glaser, there was a sufficient amount of water available since the glaciers melted in phases. The researchers are even able to say what people ate: giant mole rats, endemic rodents in the region the researchers investigated. These were easy to hunt and provided enough meat, thereby providing the energy required to survive in the rough terrain. Humans probably also settled in the area because there was deposit of volcanic obsidian rock nearby from which they could mine obsidian and make tools out of it. "The settlement was therefore not only comparatively habitable, but also practical," concludes Glaser.
 
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