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South American Mummies (Peruvian; Inca; Pre-Inca; etc.)

Bundling Objects, Documents, and Practices: Collecting Andean Mummies from 1850 to 1930.
Abstract:

This article presents research on the relationship between objects, documents, and the practice of collecting Andean mummies by European national museums in the period from 1850 to 1930. Over 200 mummies were analysed as part of this research. These mummies are kept by 18 different national museums in Western European countries. The comparative examination of these mummified human remains and their associated documentation kept by the museums has highlighted the importance of considering the process of formation of collections. This is especially true when dealing with sensitive archaeological ‘objects’during a specific historical timeframe, and within a contemporary setting. The importance of considering museum collections as embedded in global narratives, rather than isolated cases of collecting, is also highlighted in this article.

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Source: Ordoñez, M. P. (2019). Bundling objects, documents, and practices: Collecting Andean mummies from 1850 to 1930. Museum History Journal, 12(1), 75–92.
 

Attachments

  • Ordoñez, M. P. (2019). Bundling objects, documents, and practices Collecting Andean mummies fr...pdf
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Two new 'alien' mummies from Peru are revealed

A Mexican journalist claiming to be in possession of alien corpses is looking to American and European scientists to confirm their authenticity.

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Two newly unearthed 'alien' mummies from Peru have caused waves of controversy since x-ray and ultrasound data on the bodies was unveiled this past March, with archeologists fearing they may be ancient humans dug up by tomb raiders.

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Journalist and UFO researcher Jaime Maussan confirmed that more in-depth 'analyses are being done' — and he's suing Peru's government for the right to ship the bodies to more advanced labs in the US.

Maussan, whose research has courted controversy for nearly a decade, has floated the idea that the mummies might be alien-human 'hybrids,' with his scientist colleagues declaring that the new specimens contain '30 percent unknown' DNA.

But critics continue to cast doubt on his claims.

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/science...-mummies-Peru-revealed-shipped-DNA-tests.html

maximus otter
 
Really long fingers and toes... and only 3 on each limb...
 
First of all, let us consider that Jaime Maussan is a supposed researcher who has been accused of constant fraud, especially with respect to the false extraterrestrial mummies that he presented at a conference in Mexico. Firstly, he assures that they were found in Peru in 2017, in which case he would be committing a crime by having taken them out of that country without the relevant authorizations, much less with the advice of specialists. On the other hand, recent studies in Peru sponsored by the prosecution determined that the supposed extraterrestrial bodies of two other "mummies" were simply montages with animal parts. These were seized at the Lima airport when they were about to leave the country heading to Mexico.
 
Inka Sacrifice and the Mummy of Salinas Grandes, Argentina
Abstract:

In the last 25 years, materials from some human sacrifices that the Inkas carried out on high mountains (e.g., Aconcagua and Llullaillaco) have been thoroughly analyzed and adequately interpreted. Remains from immolations that took place in other contexts, however, which tend to be poorly preserved and incompletely studied, are not as well understood. In this article, I begin to remedy this imbalance in our knowledge by discussing the sacrifice from Salinas Grandes, which is a salt- flat situated in northwestern Argentina. I describe the body of the victim—who was very likely a qhapaq hucha, a specially chosen child—and his clothing, accouterments, and hairstyle. I offer hypotheses on where he came from and on the reasons behind his ritual dispatch. I demonstrate how the different items that were buried with him all contributed to the meaning of his immolation. I also show how the lords of Cuzco may have employed the sacrifice to tie the region where the salt flat is located to the empire.

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Source: Besom T. Inka Sacrifice and the Mummy of Salinas Grandes. Latin American Antiquity. 2010;21(4):399-422
 

Attachments

  • Besom, T. (2010). Inka Sacrifice and the Mummy of Salinas Grandes. Latin American Antiquity, 2...pdf
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The Bio-art History of Care, Mummy-sculptures of the Atacama Desert
Abstract:

This article examines the earliest Chinchorro intentionally made mummies of foetuses, babies and toddlers as skilfully made multimedia sculptures and not just immortalized bodies. Expanding upon palaeoclimatic and bioarchaeological studies, and drawing from examples of prehistoric and contemporary art, this article posits the Chinchorro creative and radical disruption of the natural process of mummification as a healing-artistic practice that was aimed at the physical preservation of the living and not necessarily the dead. The article thus advances a novel interpretation of Chinchorro mummies that decentres the deceased to evidence the potency and effectiveness of artistic practice and the limitations of frameworks of analysis that tend to divest pre-modern and non-Western societies from their aesthetic sensibilities and plastic aptitudes.
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Source: Juliana Ramírez Herrera . The Bio-art history of Care, Mummy-sculptures of the Atacama Desert, Sculpture Journal, Volume 32, Number 2 ,2023, pp.157-174
 

Attachments

  • Juliana Ramírez Herrera . The Bio-art history of Care, Mummy-sculptures of the Atacama Desert,...pdf
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Microbotanical and chemical approach to grave goods content from Inca sacrifices (capacocha) at Llullaillaco Mountain, Salta, Argentina (ca. 1430–1520 ce)
Abstract:

Here, we report an archaeometrical study of seven grave goods from the Inca sacrifice at Lullallalico Mountain (ca. 1430–1520 CE) in search of microbotanical and chemical evidence of the content. Two queros (vessels), one aribalo (jar), one aisana (pot), and three textile bags were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy with energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX). The results show significant chemical data and starches of Cucurbita, Oxalis, Fabaceae, Zea mays, Manihot esculenta, and Phaseolus. This archaeometrical evidence is discussed along with various perspectives on the capacocha ceremony to show that foreign and local identities were negotiated in this Andean mountain ritual.​

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Source: Juan P Ogalde & Others. Microbotanical and chemical approach to grave goods content from Inca sacrifices (capacocha) at Llullaillaco Mountain, Salta, Argentina (ca. 1430–1520 ce), Archaeometry, 2024, pp.1-17
 

Attachments

  • Juan P Ogalde & Others. Microbotanical and chemical approach to grave goods content from Inca ...pdf
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Children of Heaven A Bioarchaeological Review of the Inca Capacocha Mummies
Abstract:

Ruling over western South America for nearly 100 years, the Inca Empire was one of many global cultures that practiced human sacrifice, though few other rituals of human sacrifice are as captivating as the Inca child sacrifice of capacocha. Capacocha children were chosen to be representatives of the Inca people in the afterlife. As such, they were afforded an elevated position in society before their death. Following their selection, children would undergo a year-long pilgrimage terminating at a mountain top shrine where they would be killed. As a result of the low temperature and oxygen levels present at such a high elevation, the bodies of capacocha children were protected against decomposition, creating some of the best-preserved natural mummies in the world. These mummies have been the subject of numerous bioarchaeological analyses to determine their age, sex, geographic origin, pathological conditions, diet, and cause of death. Beyond these, however, the mummies present a unique opportunity to study how the capacocha ritual process — including the sudden ascension in status — manifested itself on the children's bodies. This paper aims to review the bioarchaeological data garnered from the mummies in order to reconstruct the experience of a child chosen for capacocha. Results suggest higher variability between children selected for capacocha than was originally outlined by Spanish chroniclers.

Source: Olenka Kawchuk . Children of Heaven A Bioarchaeological Review of the Inca Capacocha Mummies, University of Saskatchewan Undergraduated Journal, Vol 5 No 2, Fall 2019, pp.1-8
 

Attachments

  • Olenka Kawchuk . Children of Heaven A Bioarchaeological Review of the Inca Capacocha Mummies, ...pdf
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Rescue Archeology of the Inca Mummy on Mount Quehuar, Argentina
Abstract:

Over five hundred years ago the Incas carried out dramatic ceremonies on mountain summits, many of which were over 6,000 meters high. The most important offerings made at these sites involved human sacrifices. On Mount Quehuar in northwestern Argentina, an Inca sacrificial victim was found on the summit, but the frozen remains had been severely damaged by dynamite used by looters. In this study we present the results of the rescue archaeology undertaken at the site. The structures excavated and the mummy and artifacts recovered are described.

Source: Reinhard, J., & Ceruti, C. (2005). Rescue archeology of the inca mummy on mount quehuar, argentina. Journal of Biological Research - Bollettino Della Società Italiana Di Biologia Sperimentale, 80(1)
 

Attachments

  • Reinhard, J., & Ceruti, C. (2005). Rescue archeology of the inca mummy on mount quehuar, argen...pdf
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