UK Ley-Line Map

INT21

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#31
'Undercurrents' magazine was quite heavily into that kind of thing.

INT21
 
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#32
I wrote a program in the 1980's to find 'ley-lines'. Specifically, it allowed one to input the map references of 'points of interest' on a 1:50000 map and then search then entire entry list for alignments. It took every possible pair or points, plotted a straight line and worked out the perpendicular distance of every other point from the line. More than '3' counted as a 'ley'.
On the other hand, items that appear at first glance to be related, such as "earthworks" may be separated in age by 3,000 years and be from different cultures and belief systems. Of four "ancient earthworks", one may be defensive, one funerary, one agricultural, and one ritual.
They're also large, compared with, for example a standing stone. Even a small earthwork, say 50 yards across can line up with a startling number of other points. Badbury rings will align with half of Dorset.

Of course you can 'align' with the outer edge or anywhere in between. That was awkward to program for, but it was the case that earthworks cropped up in a lot of alignments. When the program created random points, seeded on the original map data, I relocated the whole earthwork.

And, as you say, age, use etc.

Any two points will always be in a straight line relative to each other. The chance that a third random point is within a degree either side of that line is 1/180. That's not rare. if I had a 1/180chance of being knocked off my motorbike every ride, I would not ride it.

The chance of a fourth point being within 1 degree of the same line is also 1/180, so the chance of points 3 and 4 both being within a degree of the line between points 1 and 2 is 1/(180*180) which is 1/32,400 which is a small chance.
From memory that was pretty much the ratio of 3 point alignments to 4 point from map data. A five point alignment (that didn't have two earth works in it ;) ] was a very rare occurrence in real or randomised data. The program never found one which didn't have a fat earthwork (or two) in it somewhere.

There is a way to consider every possible straight line in an area and check the distance of all the point from every theoretical line. I've got a note of in in the loft somewhere, but my little Amstrad didn't have the power to run it and deriving it is beyond my addled maths capabilities these days.

However, if you allow yourself the freedom to look for any and all possible alignments, then the more random points you have, the more alignments you will find, because every pair of points is a new line that a third or fourth point may also be on. It's like the thing with birthdays: the chance of a single random stranger having the same birthday as you is around 1/365, but if you have 50 people in the room, it is extremely likely that two of them will have the same birthday as each other.
The only correlation that I got was 'more points' = 'more alignments', as you say.

Next time the loft is open, I'll see if I can find the folder with Tom Graves' letter and post it.
 

chicorea

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#33
Yesterday I evoked something called the Orthoténie, and, because my ufologic memories are more than rusty, I attributed this theory/technique to Jacques Valée, when the correct is Aimé Michel. Michel was inspired, by the way, by another Jacques, Jacques Bergier, that showed him the significance of observing phenomena that could be found happening three or four times on a straight line. Michel tried this hypothesis on the UFO sightings over France on a giving date, 24/09/1954 : he found that, on a straight line, from Bayonne to Vichy (485 km), not only 3 or 4 sightings could be marked, but 6, all in the same night. Michel tried this method on many other sightings on a giving period of 24 or 48 hours, always succeeding in plotting a number of phenomena over straight lines between cities or regions. Again, inspired by Bergier, Michel found that he could cross this lines and find a single intersection point. Giving a mathematic background to the method, an American, Alexander Mebane, found that the alignment of 3 or 4 phenomena/sightings could be dismissed as coincidence, but 6 phenomena aligned had a probability between 1/500000 and 1/400000000.

All this argumentation was refuted, in a way or another, by scientific magazines and publications, and the Orthoténie was forgotten on the rusty memory of teenage wannabe ufologists.

It would be interesting applying this method to lay lines. It would be, also, proof of scientific rigour to submit the ley lines theories to the many refutations once endured by the Orthoténie.
 
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#34
...I remember falling victim to the ley hunting bug as a teenager and again in my 20s. I was excited to "discover" that Southwell Minster (near to where I live) is "on a ley line"...
Early teens for me.

But, you know what - as (probable) illusions go, ley-hunting is potentially an incredibly educational one. I spent hours poring over maps and learned an awful lot about the geography and history of my locality. I also learned to love that locality - and to read a map. (By coincidence, I lived very near to Arbor Low, which is a great nexus for the avid ley hunter.)

I've always loved a map, and I can't help wondering now if it was maybe that early enthusiasm which inspired that attraction - and I don't resent a moment spent on it. It may all be in our imagination - but I'd say that this is one instance where that is not necessarily a bad thing.
 
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Sharon Hill

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#35
I liked this opening for an article by Paul Devereux about ley lines in Fortean Times of June 2007:

Ever since Alfred Watkins announced his discovery of a network of ancient alignments crisscrossing the British countryside, the history of leys has been less of an old straight track and more of a long and winding road, one that has taken detours into everything from ufology to dowsing.

Poor Watkins! He was only trying to put some sort of order system into mapping remarkable places and things really spiraled out of control. This happens quite often as conceptual concepts related to actual factual or scientific concepts lose original meaning and clarity, or the terms get conflated.

I may have posted this earlier in the thread but I took a look at leys from a geological perspective here: https://spookygeology.com/leylines-from-the-old-straight-track-to-the-ghostbusters-vortex/

I also recommend Spooky Archaeology by Jeb Card (2018) which includes this subject and TONS more fascinating stuff. That book is gold.
 
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#36
...I also recommend Spooky Archaeology by Jeb Card (2018) which includes this subject and TONS more fascinating stuff. That book is gold.
And costs about the same. But looks fascinating....must resssiiisssstttt!!!

When you are standing at a high point in the White Peak area of the UK Peak District, where I was fortunate enough to be brought up - and where every hill, bump and rise seems to have a burial mound plonked on its ridge - it's actually quite hard not to see some sort of pattern in those ancient additions to the landscape. I'd hasten to add that I'm commenting on human nature, rather than actually suggesting that there is actually a system to the placement.

However, I've often wondered if human nature has also played a part in the initial acts, as well as their interpretation. If you were burying an important figure on a hill between two others which already had mounds on top, might it not seem somehow natural to place the new one at a point along the line that connects the other two? And might it not be that this possibly unconscious, but very simple desire, for some sort of order has been entirely misconstrued, forming the later conviction that much more complex forces were at play.

Sheer conjecture - which may simply be a reflection my own tidy nature, of course.
 

Carl Grove

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#37
Well, Alèse couldn't be a town : it's the name of a cover we use over the bed. Alès is a town in Cevénnes, in Département du Gard, remarkable for being.... unremarkable. There is very few about its history during Roman times (it's considered as an oppidium, so a small town in the main Roman roads) or Middle Ages. It was a Protestant fortress during the Religious Wars and it suffered a siege because of it. Otherwise, nothing that seems specially energetic.

I'm familiar with the Louvre/Tuilleries axe and La Défense and I can attest that the energies there are kinda palpable on this places. But, then again, it is, as much as, on other places in the Parisian region, not necessarily over the same axe.

I suspect that ley lines alone can't be the only source of what "energises" a place, a town, a monument.

By the way, the lines over the map made me think almost immediately of the vintage Orthotenies, proposed by Jacques Valée for proving statistically the reality of UFO sightings. Interesting how some patterns keep coming back...
Actually the idea was proposed by Aime Michel in the context of the 1954 wave, although Vallee did the first statistical analysis of the claims. Broadly most of the lines were explicable, but the Bayonne-Vichy line BAVIC was the subject of a very sophisticated analysis by David Saunders, and seemed to be valid. Michel also found some very interesting points on the line, e.g. ancient cave paintings, the birthplace of St Vincent de Paul, etc. I found there to be a lot of writers on esoteric subjects born near BAVIC, also saints, also the Cyclic Cross of Hendaye (said to predict the end of the world) lies very close to it. Coincidence or not? I think these things just hint at possible underlying causes, and it is worth noting that when a couple of dowsers studied the energies associated with the famous St Michael leyline, they found two separate lines of energy moving in serpentine fashion. The ley seems to be an artifact of the fact that a lot of significant neolithic and religious locations were sited on one or both of the lines and as the general trend of the two lines was roughly linear, the chances of a seemingly significant "ley" appearing were higher than normal.
 

bakelite brain

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#39
"energies" - the most overused word by paranormalists.

Energy = the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

Has anyone measured these "energies"? Quantitatively? Psychically doesn't count.
Thank you!

Indeed '"energy" is an over-used word by in the psychic field of research by those who don't realise that throwing the word around like they know what it means does not lend credibility to what they are trying to say. "Energy" is closely followed by "vibration" and "frequency" - both real terms with real meaning which just reveal scientific illiteracy by most users in this field.

The trouble is, English doesn't have a suitable substitute that I can think of. "Power" or "force" are equally unsuitable. Maybe we need to look much further afield and look for words used by other cultures, and not translate them back into English.
 

AlchoPwn

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#40
Thank you! Indeed '"energy" is an over-used word by in the psychic field of research by those who don't realise that throwing the word around like they know what it means does not lend credibility to what they are trying to say.
Etymologically, the term "energy" has a strange pedigree. When Aristotle used the term (energeia), he used it to convey the idea of being, or the way we now use the term reality. It was the Romans who turned it into meaning "force"(energia), but by way of describing forceful rhetoric, not the force that drives a wheel. The term drifts around in church Latin then moves to French still in the Latin meaning. We owe the term's scientific use, I suspect, to the Royal Society, and probably Sir Isaac Newton's Principia (tho I may well be wrong). As to the adoption of the term by ritual magicians, it occurs as the word gains popularity in science, and is in frequent use in spiritualism and ritualism of the 19th Century.

"Energy" is closely followed by "vibration" and "frequency" - both real terms with real meaning which just reveal scientific illiteracy by most users in this field. The trouble is, English doesn't have a suitable substitute that I can think of. "Power" or "force" are equally unsuitable. Maybe we need to look much further afield and look for words used by other cultures, and not translate them back into English.
Agreed. Borrowing terms from science is a bad idea for mystics. It makes them look like word poachers and reveals their ignorance. While the scientific terms often make useful metaphors, a metaphor normally breaks down. I have always preferred the term "signature" to "vibration" as it suggests unique agency, as well as the notion of a disappearing trail left in one's wake. As for "power" and "force", they had multiple meanings before science ever got hold of them, and while science uses those terms admirably precisely, the words pre-exist science and are still in common use.
 

Carl Grove

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#41
Etymologically, the term "energy" has a strange pedigree. When Aristotle used the term (energeia), he used it to convey the idea of being, or the way we now use the term reality. It was the Romans who turned it into meaning "force"(energia), but by way of describing forceful rhetoric, not the force that drives a wheel. The term drifts around in church Latin then moves to French still in the Latin meaning. We owe the term's scientific use, I suspect, to the Royal Society, and probably Sir Isaac Newton's Principia (tho I may well be wrong). As to the adoption of the term by ritual magicians, it occurs as the word gains popularity in science, and is in frequent use in spiritualism and ritualism of the 19th Century.



Agreed. Borrowing terms from science is a bad idea for mystics. It makes them look like word poachers and reveals their ignorance. While the scientific terms often make useful metaphors, a metaphor normally breaks down. I have always preferred the term "signature" to "vibration" as it suggests unique agency, as well as the notion of a disappearing trail left in one's wake. As for "power" and "force", they had multiple meanings before science ever got hold of them, and while science uses those terms admirably precisely, the words pre-exist science and are still in common use.
I'm not really talking about anything mystical, except that energy dowsers (who are "mystical" in name only) have mostly fallen into the trap of New Age thinking and you have to make a real effort to ignore all the "mystic", "profound" "holy" adjectives they attach to everything. I'm assuming that Vincent Reddish and the MoD are right in linking the dowsing energy with Russian work on torsion waves. Reddish in fact confirmed several of the Russian results with a totally different experimental paradigm. Before anyone who hasn't heard about this checks this in Wikipedia, the entry there was written by a person with a scarcely veiled agenda against two of the leading researchers in this field (I have complained to Wikipedia about this with predictable results) and has rubbished the whole field. Having said that torsion energy is a highly controversial area, but it does have geographical correlates with strange events such as time slips, and it can be detected in various ways other than dowsing.
Agreed, "energy" is a term that has specific meanings in certain physical contexts, but it is as good as any other in this area even if we can't precisely define it in the same way as we can in more established fields of science.
 

Sharon Hill

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#42
torsion energy is a highly controversial area, but it does have geographical correlates with strange events such as time slips, and it can be detected in various ways other than dowsing.
I never heard anything about this. What references would you recommend?

Agreed, "energy" is a term that has specific meanings in certain physical contexts, but it is as good as any other in this area even if we can't precisely define it in the same way as we can in more established fields of science.
The problem for me is that I don't think dowsing involves any energy except that attributed to holding a stick and walking. We've never been able to measure ANY energy/force/signal/thing related to dowsing (except expectation). So, I reject the term entirely as applied to dowsing (and other supposed occult forces).
 
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#43
The problem for me is that I don't think dowsing involves any energy except that attributed to holding a stick and walking. We've never been able to measure ANY energy/force/signal/thing related to dowsing (except expectation). So, I reject the term entirely as applied to dowsing (and other supposed occult forces).
^this^
 

Mungoman

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#44
I've been sitting here, reading, and as one does, little thoughts drop into the 'display' so to speak, and one thought came through - and that was that when you are going cross country walking, or otherwise over some distance, that you need to take a bearing with your compass, or star and then search the horizon for a point to latch onto.

A physicality of nature. A tree, a dip in the horizon, or conversely, a peak.

Then you walk along, noting the lay of the land, what trees are in bloom, or how full the creek/beck is. Every half hour or so, heads are lifted to the familiar horizon to note where your land mark is.

A straight line avoids confusion, and is easier to relay to another person when recounting, rather than describing a none Euclidean meander.

The beauty is that if you do need to sidetrack due to the topography - knowing your distant marker makes it easier to re-establish the required path.

The Old People here in Australia have something similar where their Country was built by a Giant Serpent, creating the rivers, creeks, valleys - and the later Heroes who fought, made cooking ovens, or who just went to sleep being represented in the topography of the land.

In the Olden Days, the Old Ones would walk their country and much like a catechism, would 'sing' their country as they went, with everyone knowing the connection between country, and their genesis, and what it represented.

An internal map set to music and verse, and knowing this - they were never lost.

Maybe the Leys were something similar to the old Iron Age traders.
 

Carl Grove

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#45
OK, it seems that people don't know about the Reddish work and the Russian research. I first came upon this evidence while researching a local time slip mystery, the disappearing houses at Rougham in the UK. It so happens that I have recently updated my report on the results, including an appendix dealing with dowsing. Here is a link:

https://www.dropbox.com/s/2bci69we0ji3avi/THE ROUGHAM MYSTERY.pdf?dl=0
 
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Mikefule

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#47
I've been sitting here, reading, and as one does, little thoughts drop into the 'display' so to speak, and one thought came through - and that was that when you are going cross country walking, or otherwise over some distance, that you need to take a bearing with your compass, or star and then search the horizon for a point to latch onto.

A physicality of nature. A tree, a dip in the horizon, or conversely, a peak.

Then you walk along, noting the lay of the land, what trees are in bloom, or how full the creek/beck is. Every half hour or so, heads are lifted to the familiar horizon to note where your land mark is.

A straight line avoids confusion, and is easier to relay to another person when recounting, rather than describing a none Euclidean meander.

The beauty is that if you do need to sidetrack due to the topography - knowing your distant marker makes it easier to re-establish the required path.
I quite like this idea in general terms. It would be not unlike a mariner's "leading marks" or "leading lights".

Where the channel into a harbour is narrow and there are underwater obstructions to each side, it is common to have two marks showing the safe line to take. When the back mark (the higher of the two) is exactly over the fore mark, you are on the safe line. If you move off the line to your left (to port) then the back mark will move to the left of the fore mark.

I can see how this basic idea of aligned landmarks might work in open country. "Keep the lightning blasted tree in line with the distant peak until you see the pile of rocks in line with the notch in the skyline to your right..."

However, in England, which was largely forested, the number of opportunities to see two landmarks in alignment would be quite limited. A far easier system would be cairns, blazes on trees, and short local alignments showing a general direction.

Another thought is that if I were on a long journey across forest, marshland and rocky hillsides, I would be at least as interested in finding the safe route across or around the obstacles as I was in maintaining a general sense of direction.

However, I can accept the basic principle that in some cases, there may have been deliberate alignments of conspicuous landmarks which indicated general direction rather than the specific route.

I can also accept that it is possible, but perhaps not susceptible to proof, that some ancient peoples believed that standing stones had some influence on some sort of force that flowed through the Earth. People believe all sorts of things.

However, I am not going to believe in the literal existence of that force, or the effectiveness of the stones in influencing it, without some clear and repeatable observations.
 
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#48
However, I can accept the basic principle that in some cases, there may have been deliberate alignments of conspicuous landmarks which indicated general direction rather than the specific route.
If nothing else, the existence of a well worn path would be noticeable from gaps in tree lines and even notches in ridges as the path wears down. There's a nice example near me, where a lane cuts a ridge and it cuts some 15 feet into the ground, but it is covered by trees, so not that noticeable, but trees are relatively temporary.
 
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#49
However, in England, which was largely forested,

Just like to point out that the spread of agriculture in the Bronze age led to much of the British Isles being cleared of it's forests between 1 - 2,000 BCE.
It's a myth that this was all continuous woodland by the time the Romans arrived, but I get your point and am only being a little pedantic Mike.
 
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#50
Just like to point out that the spread of agriculture in the Bronze age led to much of the British Isles being cleared of it's forests between 1 - 2,000 BCE.
It's a myth that this was all continuous woodland by the time the Romans arrived, but I get your point and am only being a little pedantic Mike.
Plus there is evidence of a network of roads that is pre-Roman. It's not a big leap to something like 'songlines' to enable one to get about the place.
 

Carl Grove

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#51
I quite like this idea in general terms. It would be not unlike a mariner's "leading marks" or "leading lights".

Where the channel into a harbour is narrow and there are underwater obstructions to each side, it is common to have two marks showing the safe line to take. When the back mark (the higher of the two) is exactly over the fore mark, you are on the safe line. If you move off the line to your left (to port) then the back mark will move to the left of the fore mark.

I can see how this basic idea of aligned landmarks might work in open country. "Keep the lightning blasted tree in line with the distant peak until you see the pile of rocks in line with the notch in the skyline to your right..."

However, in England, which was largely forested, the number of opportunities to see two landmarks in alignment would be quite limited. A far easier system would be cairns, blazes on trees, and short local alignments showing a general direction.

Another thought is that if I were on a long journey across forest, marshland and rocky hillsides, I would be at least as interested in finding the safe route across or around the obstacles as I was in maintaining a general sense of direction.

However, I can accept the basic principle that in some cases, there may have been deliberate alignments of conspicuous landmarks which indicated general direction rather than the specific route.

I can also accept that it is possible, but perhaps not susceptible to proof, that some ancient peoples believed that standing stones had some influence on some sort of force that flowed through the Earth. People believe all sorts of things.

However, I am not going to believe in the literal existence of that force, or the effectiveness of the stones in influencing it, without some clear and repeatable observations.
There is actually a lot of anecdotal and dowsing evidence that almost all standing stones and more complex structures were sited on areas of high earth energy (torsion waves created by the rotation of earth and sun) modulated by geological strata, and that odd events such as time slips do occur at such locations. There is also evidence of EM and sonic energies generated by some of the stones. Research is in its infancy at the moment, so you won't get clear and repeatable observations yet. The connection with ley lines is almost certainly an artefact -- when a couple of dowsers tried following the famous Michael line they found not one but two separate energy lines that wind back and forth across the ley. The stone circles, churches, etc. that lie on one or other of these lines do create the effect of a ley, but the apparent precision is illusory.
 
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#52
There is actually a lot of anecdotal and dowsing evidence
So not actual evidence in the scientific sense of the word.

that almost all standing stones and more complex structures were sited on areas of high earth energy (torsion waves created by the rotation of earth and sun) modulated by geological strata, and that odd events such as time slips do occur at such locations.
None of those things are demonstrably real.

There is also evidence of EM and sonic energies generated by some of the stones.
In what context?

For example, any stone with quartz in it might vibrate when subjected to a changing voltage field and vice versa, or even at a stretch, when warmed up, but that's not mysterious, it could be measured. Ultrasonic transducers are cheap enough, the sun comes up most days, 'ley' lines not required.

Research is in its infancy at the moment, so you won't get clear and repeatable observations yet. The connection with ley lines is almost certainly an artefact -- when a couple of dowsers tried following the famous Michael line they found not one but two separate energy lines that wind back and forth across the ley. The stone circles, churches, etc. that lie on one or other of these lines do create the effect of a ley, but the apparent precision is illusory.
Just out of interest, the famous 'Michael' line, is that a straight line on a map (as it were) or does it allow for the earth's curvature?
How do places on this 'ley' relate to the line? Must they be within 10 meters? 20? 50?
How does one decide which part of a place is the 'centre'?
So does a 'ley' have to pass through the altar of a church? The transept? Within 10 meters of either? Anywhere inside the consecrated area?
How wide is this 'ley'?
 

bakelite brain

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#53
Thanks Coal. You just asked the kind of questions I'd have asked!

Not sure torsion waves are a thing are they? If we can't detect them how does anyone know they exist. EM radiation (even to 30dB below the background noise) can be detected. Is the relevant to ley lines? If so surely it would have been well documented by now. I wonder what frequency they are on! (Must get my portable spectrum analyser out and have a look...)

I asked about the supposed width of ley lines back in post 21. I don't think there was a clear answer.
 

Carl Grove

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#54
I have no particular interest in ley lines and (as in this case) I think most of them are artefacts. As Coal knows, I have quoted several times the research into dowsing conducted by Vincent Reddish, the request by the MoD that he continue his work and test whether earth energy is in fact the torsion waves investigated by Russian researchers, and his confirmation of the hypothesis. I don't know whether any of the small team he put together is still active nor how the MoD developed his findings. Both of Reddish's small self-published books, The D Force and The Field of Rotating Masses can usually be obtained from Abe. Information about incidents at ancient sites such as time and dimensional slips is available on the net. Unfortunately many of the dowsing sources are infected with crazy New Age ideas, but some of the basic findings of them and the well known Dragon Project are given in Maria Wheatley, http://theaveburyexperience.co.uk/articles/
and Don Robbins, Circles of Silence, 1985. Besides earth energy, anomalies have been noted in ultrasonics, radio frequencies, and radioactivity. If you can see past the bizarre New Age imagery and look at the basic findings described, a pattern is certainly apparent. I got interested in this subject through my time slip research and the fact that time slips and other odd events have been described by independent witnesses at stone age sites (e.g. Edith Olivier's 1916 experience at Avebury).
Besides Dowsing, the Russians developed a number of ways of detecting torsion, such as delicate balances and measuring the resistivity of tungsten. Some theorists suggest that torsion propogates at superluminal velocities, which is one reason why various organisations have taken an interest in it.
 

Mungoman

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#56
Well, i don't know about Iron Age or Lithic Age Europeans, but i have spent a little time with Australian Aborigines, and their reality (the non-city fellas) is very very different to city people.

They know their 'country' by it's character, and have lines of energy which the Old Ones sing to, to preserve the land. They walk this land and greet big old trees as mates (friends) - conversely, they steer away from country that is 'cheeky' (powerful) because only those that are 'knowing' are comfortable (or allowed) there. The Old Ones see water as being mysterious and powerful, and will throw a rock into a pond or waterhole from a distance so as not to startle the water and it's guardian/spirit - They believe that stars sing, and that on a winter's night they sing the loudest. They'll use the knowledge of all of these things to take them where they want to go

Knowing this reality, they still live in the present. our reality, but not completely. My neighbour next door, Lynn, is sitting out in the morning sun. Lynn has solar cells on her roof so she's not being careful with the pennies - even though it's 16c/60f she will sit in the sun - in fact as you go through this little village, you'll see chairs sitting out in the yard for that express purpose - If you ask lynn, why do you sit in the sun when you could be inside with the heater on, or a fire going, she'll say something like 'well, why wouldn't you...', as if it was a silly question. If you ask those that are open, they'll say, because it's good for you, that fella up there is feeding me - but while Lynn is still living her ancesteral reality, she's also skyping with her extended family throughout Australia. Best of both worlds...Eh.

So I reckon that it does us no favours to stand at our place of science and say that because we can't see or hear something, that it won't exist, because to many others it does...or it once did.
 

Carl Grove

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#60
Never learned this in any geology classes...
Well, you wouldn't, because dowsing has long been regarded as something dubious by officialdom, despite its obvious utility, and because until some very bright spark in the MoD read Reddish's first book and connected it with the little known Russian research into torsion, nobody had seen the link. Many dowsers had recognised the role of geological faulting in modulating the earth energy but since nobody had any idea what earth energy was, their ideas were neglected in the wider community -- and still are. If, as seems to be the case in some areas, the energy can promote or create time slips and other odd phenomena, we have an explanation too for the well known connection between geology and strange happenings (cf Jenny Randles' book on the Pennines).
 
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