Volcanos / Volcanoes

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Statistics which are bound to be useful in a table quiz some day.

Building on existing information and databases relating to volcanic fatalities, scientists from the University of Bristol have, for the first time, been able to classify victims by activity or occupation and look at the distance of their death from the volcano.

It is hoped the findings, published recently in the Journal of Applied Volcanology, will help increase our understanding of volcanic hazards and the subsequent threat to life.

A tenth of the world's population lives within the potential footprint of volcanic hazards with more than 800 million people living within 100 km of active volcanoes.

Between 1500 and 2017 more than 278,000 people met their fate as a result of volcanic hazards – on average that's about 540 people a year.

Volcanoes produce numerous hazards which affect different distances, in both times of eruption and when the volcano is quiet.

During this research Dr Sarah Brown from the University of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences and colleagues, updated previous databases of volcanic fatalities by correcting data, adding events and, crucially, now including information on the location of the fatalities in terms of distance from the volcano.

The location of fatal incidents was identified from official reports, volcano activity bulletins, scientific reports and media stories.

Nearly half of all fatal incidents were recorded within 10 km of volcanoes but fatalities are recorded as far away as 170 km.

https://phys.org/print426501202.html
 

gerhard1

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I've met quite a few Japanese people, and I've never heard one say 'ah so'.
When I was in high school any years ago, I took Russian, and the teacher also was fluent in Mandarin Chinese. One of the students asked him about 'ah so' being Chinese and his response was that it was an abortion of Japanese. So it seems to have been a common stereotype.

Anyway, back to volcanos: I like to go to google earth and I found something curious on Bouvet Island (yes; the Bouvet Island that figured so prominently in my thread on phantom islands). Bouvet is a dormant volcano, and it is uninhabited. I noticed what appeared to be smoke, ash or some such thing. That made think the volcano had activated, but when I checked the Global Volcanism site, the last eruption was about 2000 years ago.

Could it have been discolored clouds or something? It seem unlikely that an eruption could have been missed. Bouvet is 54 South 3 East.
 

EnolaGaia

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... I like to go to google earth and I found something curious on Bouvet Island (yes; the Bouvet Island that figured so prominently in my thread on phantom islands). Bouvet is a dormant volcano, and it is uninhabited. I noticed what appeared to be smoke, ash or some such thing. That made think the volcano had activated, but when I checked the Global Volcanism site, the last eruption was about 2000 years ago.

Could it have been discolored clouds or something? It seem unlikely that an eruption could have been missed. Bouvet is 54 South 3 East.
'Dormant' basically means 'not actively erupting', as opposed to 'extinct' (i.e., dead; incapable of further eruptions).

A dormant volcano can still be 'hot', and it can still emit gas / vapor.

If what you saw was on or at the surface, I suspect it was fog or water vapor (perhaps steam).
 

AgProv

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Some trivia - "ah so" is what Mr. Spock said in the Japanese dubbed versions of Star Trek instead of "it's logical".

Sorry for the OT. Back to volcanos...
in the Japanese version of ST:Next Generation, does Captain Picard-san ever say "Make it ah-so?" (sorry, could not resist).
 

hunck

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Interesting video from the PBS science program NOVA that was put into motion by a mass grave found in England.

That's a fascinating detective story - the largest eruption in the last several thousand years. I love these incidents where scientists in different fields collaborate to piece together what happened. Thanks for posting.
 

AlchoPwn

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Kilauea does not disappoint. What a show! I am almost tempted to fly there at see it first hand. Better than the Royal Wedding!
 

EnolaGaia

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The volcanos can collaborate! :nails:

We're accustomed to thinking of volcanos as being grouped or clustered in certain regions (e.g., the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'), but we tend to treat them as separate / individual points of eruption on the surface.

This new study (of a pair of active volcanos in Japan) provides the first demonstrable evidence of multiple volcanic peaks on the surface drawing magma from a common source deep below ...

Study finds deep subterranean connection between two Japan volcanoes
Scientists have confirmed for the first time that radical changes of one volcano in southern Japan was the direct result of an erupting volcano 22 kilometers (13.7 miles) away. The observations from the two volcanos--Aira caldera and Kirishima--show that the two were connected through a common subterranean magma source in the months leading up to the 2011 eruption of Kirishima.

The Japanese cities of Kirishima and Kagoshima lie directly on the border of the Aira caldera, one of the most active, hazardous, and closely monitored volcanoes in southern Japan. Identifying how volcanoes interact is critical to determine if and how an eruption can influence the activity of a distant volcano or raise the threat of a new strong explosive event.

The research team from the University of Miami's (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and Florida International University analyzed deformation data from 32 permanent GPS stations in the region to identify the existence of a common magma reservoir that connected the two volcanoes. ...
FULL STORY: https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-07/uomr-sf071318.php
 
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Makes a change from cats and dogs sensing them in advance.

Artificial intelligence helps predict volcanic eruptions
By Paul VoosenDec. 11, 2018 , 4:00 PM

Satellites are providing torrents of data about the world’s active volcanoes, but researchers have struggled to turn them into a global prediction of volcanic risks. That may soon change with newly developed algorithms that can automatically tease from that data signals of volcanic risk, raising the prospect that within a couple years scientists could develop a global volcano warning system.

Without such tools, geoscientists simply can’t keep up with information pouring out the satellites, says Michael Poland, the scientist-in-charge of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Yellowstone Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, who was not involved in either study. “The volume of data is overwhelming,” he says.

Andrew Hooper, a volcanologist at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom who led the development of one method, says the new algorithms should benefit the roughly 800 million people who live near volcanoes. “About 1400 volcanoes have potential to erupt above the sea,” he says. “About 100 are monitored. The vast majority aren’t.” Both methods were presented this week in Washington, D.C., at the semiannual meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU). ...

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/201...ly_2018-12-11&et_rid=394299689&et_cid=2541817
 

EnolaGaia

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A volcano in the Kamchatka area considered extinct is showing worrisome signs of renewed life.
Extinct volcano has woken up and scientists say it could erupt 'at any moment'

A volcano in the far eastern corner of Russia that was previously considered extinct may be waking up -- and an eruption could be catastrophic.

The Bolshaya Udina volcano -- part of the Kamchatka Peninsula's Udina volcanic complex -- was believed to be extinct until 2017, when increasing seismic activity was detected beneath it, scientists say. ...

Between 1999 and September 2017, about 100 weak seismic events were detected beneath the volcano, which stands at 9,590 feet above sea level. An "anomalous increase" in seismicity, however, began in October 2017. Between October 2017 and February 2019, about 2,400 seismic events were recorded.

February saw an earthquake of 4.3 magnitude occur under Udina -- the strongest seismic event ever to occur in the area. ...
FULL STORY: https://www.cnn.com/2019/06/07/europe/russia-volcano-scli-intl-scn/index.html
 

EnolaGaia

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'World's largest volcano discovered beneath Pacific

Scientists say that they have discovered the single largest volcano in the world, a dead colossus deep beneath the Pacific waves.
A team writing in the journal Nature Geoscience says the 310,000 sq km (119,000 sq mi) Tamu Massif is comparable in size to Mars' vast Olympus Mons volcano - the largest in the Solar System.

The structure topples the previous largest on Earth, Mauna Loa in Hawaii. ...
Not any more .... In a new study researchers have concluded the Tamu Massif doesn't quality as a single volcano.

Geoscientists Were Wrong About the 'World's Largest Volcano'

Back in 2013, Tamu Massif — a giant underwater volcano off the coast of Japan — stole Hawaii's crown as the largest single volcano in the world. But it's not a true single volcano at all.

Researchers published a paper in 2013 in the journal Nature Geoscience concluding that Tamu Massif was a giant "shield volcano" — even bigger than Hawaii's Mauna Loa, which rises 30,085 feet (9,170 meters) from the ocean floor and covers thousands of square miles with its ancient, solidified magma flows. Now, in a new paper, researchers conclude that the 2013 paper was wrong, and Tamu Massif isn't a shield volcano. The crown, according to this new research, returns to Mauna Loa.

Shield volcanoes form when a single volcanic plume spills enough lava over time, and that lava spreads far enough, to form a bulge-shaped mountain around the volcano's opening. Mauna Loa is a shield volcano. So are most of the much smaller volcanoes in Iceland. (Cone-shaped volcanoes, like Mount St. Helens, aren't shields but "stratovolcanoes.") In 2013, researchers thought that Tamu Massif formed in this same way. But the new paper suggests they're wrong. ...

Tamu Massif is a shallow volcanic system, with gently sloping sides; it extends about 400 miles (650 kilometers) wide, rising about 2.5 miles (4 km) tall. The massive underwater volcano lies along part of the mid-ocean ridge system, the world-encircling series of boundaries between different tectonic plates. This enormous system is, in a sense, the true largest volcano in the world, because magma can bulge upward and spill out as lava on top of the crust all along its range. But that volcanism doesn't look like the volcanism that forms a shield volcano. ...

FULL STORY: https://www.livescience.com/65897-largest-volcano-record.html
 

Bigphoot2

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Pumice raft found in Pacific Ocean
Vast 'pumice raft' found drifting through Pacific Ocean
  • 7 hours ago
A vast "raft" of volcanic rocks stretching over 150 sq km (93 sq miles) is drifting through the Pacific Ocean, scientists say.
The sea of pumice - the size of 20,000 football fields - was first reported by Australian sailors earlier this month.
Experts say the mass likely came from an underwater volcano near Tonga which erupted around 7 August according to satellite images.
Sailors have been warned to stay clear of the potential hazard.
Pumice is a lightweight, bubble-rich rock that can float in water. It is produced when magma is cooled rapidly.
Large "rafts" of the volcanic rock are more likely to form when a volcano is located in more shallow waters, say experts.

etc
https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-australia-49469446
 

Kondoru

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Thats cornered the market on things to rub on your dry skin!

When you was a child, was there a silly mouse made of pumice (I see the pun now) in your bathroom?
 
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