Egyptian Evidence For Moses / Exodus?

taras

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I was just watching "Prince Of Egypt" (very good too - didn't think I would enjoy it but they managed not to make it too "religious") and I wondered, if Moses managed to part the seas and set plagues on Egypt, and if the Passover actually took place, then is it recorded in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics or on tablets?

Is there any evidence for these miracles outwith the Bible? (For example, I know that Jesus was mentioned in Roman records and accounts of the period.)
 

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Merenptah and Moses

Probably the oldest refrence to Israel in Eygpt, and there's very few is on a Stelae (memorial stone) from the mortuary temple of Merenptah, or Merneptah, who was the successor of Usermatre Ramesses (the Second or the Great) from around 1210 BC.

There's a list of his battles and victories, near the bottom it reads:
'Israel is laid waste, its seed is gone.'

And that's about it. No plagues, no exodus (although to be fair if a subject tribe had cleared off into the desert, they were hardly going to list it among the King's achivements).

I think there's also a reference to Jerusalem as being a defeated city in another list of battles, and a few years back someone claimed to have identified records of an Egyptian official who could have been Joseph (of the coat of many colours) but that's pretty shakey.

We don't actually know what Moses' full name is. It's the second half of a name meaning 'son of' - Ramesses or Ramose means son of Ra - possibly Moses was also named after an Eygptian god, but dropped the god part of his name. (the -mose ending is I'm told the same as moshe in Hebrew).
 

Breakfastologist

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There was a really interesting program about this on bbc 1 a little while ago. It had a selection of explanations for the phenomenae described in the exodus - mostly revolving around the Santorini explosion, which would have created the pillar of cloud/fire described in the bible and could also have created a tidal wave effect for the sea crossing. Interestingly the term "Red Sea" is a mistranslation of "Reed Sea" which is a large swampy area, rather than the red sea itself. The program also suggested that the Exodus could have happened over a fairly long period rather than a single journey through the desert taking 40 years. More here.

Another theory I have heard proposed is that the israelites were the priests and followers of heretic pharoah Akhenaten who were cast out after his death when his successor replaced him with the traditional egyptian pantheon.
 

Jerry_B

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There is suprisingly little archaeological evidence for anything described in the Old Testament, let alone in accounts from that time by other nearby cultures. This has caused problems in Israel, as a few years ago two leading Israeli archaeologists put the view forward that alot of what is said about Jewish history from that period and later is not borne out by any evidence. This lead to death threats, etc.. So it seems that tales of Israelite military victories, etc. were rather inflated or 'imaginative' accounts of what really happened.
 

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Mind you, had last century's Israeli victories over the Arab League happened in "biblical" times and were recorded in the relevant ancient texts, people would dismiss them as pure tosh and Jewish propoganda.
Reading the books collected in the "Old Testament" as 19th or 20th century history books is a waste of time as this they most certainly are not. Their authors shared as similar a concept of history as the writers of 4038 will with our historians. Not that they are not useful historical documents to the unbiased reader (that excludes those looking for Noah's Ark as well as those whose true and unspoken criticism is that the content of the said books disagrees with their worldview).
As the mythologist Joseph Campbell once said, it's not whether or not the Genesis Flood happened - it's what this story says to us about our lives now.
If it you're not interested in mythology, fair enough - doesn't give one the right to look down one's nose at those who do though (a pre-emptive note, not a reference to you Jerry B! :) )
"Old Testament" archaeology is not my forte (I'm not bothered about the histrocity of it all, myth being the "truth behind the facts" - Campbell again), but what I have read has surprised me, I have to say. My particular favourite is the ruler named in the book of Daniel who was written off as non-existent in the 19th century due to lack of archaeological evidence, only for his name to turn up on a tablet last century :D Details not on the tip of my tongue, but I have it somewhere.
Anyway lack of archaeological evidence ain't the be all and end all of constructing the 21st century concept of "history" of any period or culture, especially given the number of unexcavated sites. There's a good account of the p's and q's of archaeological evidence here (not about the OT, just abou archaeology).
 
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For example, I know that Jesus was mentioned in Roman records and accounts of the period


Not entirely true, IIRC there was no evidence of Jesus' existence in anecdotal literature of the time. The possible earliest historical mention of Jesus was a papyrus of the gospel of John, written in Greek and dating about 125CE.

Tacitus, in his book Annals (authored somewhere between 109-119CE or thereabouts), mentions the persecution of Christians during the end of Nero's rule. There are many that doubt the veracity of this report, or that it was indeed written by the man himself, however.

A powerful consideration for the *reality* of Jesus is here:

Philo was born before the beginning of the Christian era and lived until long after the reputed death of Christ. He wrote an account of the Jews covering the entire time that Christ is said to have existed on earth. He was living in or near Jerusalem when Christ's miraculous birth and the Herodian massacre occurred. He was there when Christ made his triumphal entry in Jerusalem. He was there when the Crucifixion with its attendant earthquake, supernatural darkness, and resurrection of the dead took place--when Christ himself rose from the dead. Yet, these events were not mentioned by him.

I'm not saying that Issa didn't exist, please don't think this post is an affront to the Xtian belief system, it's just that you claim to "know" of accounts when in reality there is less than a wisp, or a scrap, of evidence of his existence until at least 2-300 years after his death. Then there is a deluge...
 

Jerry_B

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Whilst it's true that references to certain people (i.e. rulers) in the OT may turn out to be true, the nitty-gritty of the Israelite's story seem to have large holes in it, which is the main thing to take note of. Of course, the whole thing could be part of a general myth, but such things are taken literally by certain sections of the world community and used for whatever reasons they see fit. This is particularly pertinent to Israel as it exists today. So, if the actual physical evidence doesn't back up what's been written, one has to assume that a certain amount of embellishment has gone on ;) And whilst this be no big deal to us, it's a very big bone of contention for others.

(BTW hospitaller, I haven't a clue what you're talking about with reference to me :confused: )
 

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Did Philo exist? Apart from Josephus, no ancient Jewish writer mentions Philo. :D I'm joking of course! But a similar argument against the existence of Jesus Christ is propounded with gay abandon about the net...

The only date in Philo's life of which we can be certain is his visit to Rome in 40 A.D., when he was an elderly man heading a delegation of Alexandrian Jews to Caligula. Who has him living in Palestine at the time of Christ then??? (I'm not omniscient, but I've never heard that one!)

Considering that the works of Philo were transmitted by Christian copyists, the absence of a mention of Christ in what we have received says a lot for their integrity and the integrity of the other texts they've passed down to us. If Philo is a reliable source to quote, then so are the other works transmitted through the centuries by the Christian pen. We can't cherry pick. It would have been all too easy to slip a mention of Christ somewhere in there over the hundreds of years of transmission...

Given that other texts mentioning Christ are as reliable as Philo, why was then was Philo silent? Philo's forte was not history for starters, he was first and foremostan expositor and exegete of the Jewish Scriptures.
Regardless of this, for historians of those times to be silent about a person or movement was a typical method of oblique affrontery.
But this may not have been the case, Philo (an ardent apologist for the Jewish religion) probably did not live (thought to have died sometime after 40A.D.) to see Christianity or Christ develop into a threat worth mentioning or ignoring.

It is on this basis that the story of Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., II, iv) that Philo and Peter met in Rome around 39/40 AD; as well as the opinion (shared by Epiphanius) that Philo's "Therapeutae" were actually the first Christians in Alexandria, could be seen as somewhat unreliable, as can the mention by Photius that Philo became a Christian after this meeting with Peter.

The above in itself is no more a proof of Jesus' existence than is Philo's silence proof of his non-existence. In other words, we must base our judgement on works other than those of Philo.

Sorry for the thread hijack, back to Egypt...
 

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(BTW hospitaller, I haven't a clue what you're talking about with reference to me )
Sorry Jerry B! Past general references I've made to the arrogance and apparent omniscience of haphazard Atheistic potshots (based on assumption rather than scholarship) at the corpus of scriptural works in general have been taken as personal references - I just wanted to specify that this was not the case!

I make no claims for the histrocity of the "Old Testament", and if I did I'd produce proof of same. I'd be interested (and educated) to hear of what underlies your claims of its non-histrocity - and I don't mean the Garden of Eden! Let's stick to the thread topic and talk about Egypt and the Jews...
 

Bilderberger

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Damn - I was hoping that this could stay off-topic, as I had just copied (ready for pasting) the text from Tacitus which, if not actually naming Jesus as The Christ, certainly provides some evidence. But, I won't now.

As for OT and Egyptian history - I remember a documentary, a few years ago - which suggested that our dating of Egyptian history is out - and that if it is adjusted along with a certain theory - OT history and Egyptian history manage to coincide rather amazingly.

Like I say, I cannot remember it well - perhaps it will jog someone's memory. I don't think I was overly impressed by the programme - but interesting nonetheless.
 

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Fear not Bilderberger! I've had a PM from eljubbo who is going to continue the discussion on another thread, so hold that text and watch the New Posts page!
 

Mike_Pratt33

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Bilderberger said:
As for OT and Egyptian history - I remember a documentary, a few years ago - which suggested that our dating of Egyptian history is out - and that if it is adjusted along with a certain theory - OT history and Egyptian history manage to coincide rather amazingly.

Like I say, I cannot remember it well - perhaps it will jog someone's memory. I don't think I was overly impressed by the programme - but interesting nonetheless.

I can't remember what the documentry was called but the book is
Test of Time by David Rohl

I found his theory that the accepted chronology was wrong persuasive. I haven't heard anything about him recently, I think he has beed buried beneath the rampaging publicity machines of Hancock et al which would be a pity.
 

Timble2

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Re: Merenptah and Moses

Timble said:
...and a few years back someone claimed to have identified records of an Egyptian official who could have been Joseph (of the coat of many colours) but that's pretty shakey...

Thanks for reminding me MikeP, it was David Rohl who did this.

I've read David Rohl and while I think he stretches his evidence a bit further than it goes, and I don't agree with his chronology,
he's done his research and deserves to be taken seriously.

It's definitely unfair that the British Museum banned his book.
 

carole

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Re: Merenptah and Moses

Timble said:
Probably the oldest refrence to Israel in Eygpt, and there's very few is on a Stelae (memorial stone) from the mortuary temple of Merenptah, or Merneptah, who was the successor of Usermatre Ramesses (the Second or the Great) from around 1210 BC.

There's a list of his battles and victories, near the bottom it reads:
'Israel is laid waste, its seed is gone.'
And the determinative symbol associated with the word 'Israel' is that used for a nation, so it would appear that, by the time of Merneptah, Israel was a fairly well established nation. Therefore, the exodus, whatever form it took, must have happened some time previously to 1210 BC.

Carole
 

Jerry_B

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Depends if it says 'Israel' or 'the Israelites'. And it could imply Israel as a region, and perhaps not as a de facto state.
 

elvissa

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Wasn't there something in FT a couple of years ago where someone was saying that Jesus might have been a pharoah? Soemthing to do with 'Jesus' being the Greek version of 'Joshua', which then has a different version in Egyptian. Oh, I can't remember, my memory is a haze.
 
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Re: Merenptah and Moses

Timble said:
There's a list of his battles and victories, near the bottom it reads:
'Israel is laid waste, its seed is gone.'
I'm sure I came across something in the past couple of years that gave the impression that the name 'Israel' might be a lot older than the Hebrews (from a linguistically-related people): that the Hebrews adopted it when they were changing from a Bedouin lifestyle to a more sedentary existence around the mid-11th C. BCE, to give the impression that their roots in the region went back further than they actually did.

Note that the archeology of the region doesn't support the existence of a city and town-based Hebrew culture at any date much prior to King David (and then nothing on the scale mentioned in the OT), and the question that raises is how likely is a Pharaoh like Merneptah to record a victory over a minor, basically-nomadic tribe? (And the answer to that question depends on how self-aggrandizing you choose to believe Merneptah was, or how desperate you are to believe that the Hebrews were always as important as they later became.)
 

carole

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JerryB said:
Depends if it says 'Israel' or 'the Israelites'. And it could imply Israel as a region, and perhaps not as a de facto state.
Like I said, JerryB, the hieroglyphs for 'Israel' are accompanied by a symbol which indicates that 'Israel' is a nation.

Carole
 

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absence of evidence ain't evidence of absence!
 

rynner2

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Not new ideas, but about to get another airing:
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0, ... 69,00.html
Volcanic eruption 'triggered biblical parting of Red Sea'
Tony Allen-Mills, New York

THE greatest story ever told has acquired a Hollywood twist. James Cameron, the director of Titanic, is the executive producer of a new documentary that claims to have uncovered fresh evidence confirming one of the most dramatic episodes in the Old Testament — the parting of the Red Sea and the Jewish exodus from Egypt.

In The Exodus Decoded, a 90-minute documentary that will be shown in America this month, Cameron and Simcha Jacobovici, the Canadian film producer, claim a volcanic eruption on the Greek archipelago of Santorini triggered a chain of natural catastrophes recorded in the Bible as the 10 plagues that God visited upon Egypt as punishment for enslaving the Jews.

Cameron believes the parting of the Red Sea may have been a tsunami that destroyed the pharaoh’s army as it pursued the escaping Jews. The documentary claims the episode occurred not at the Red Sea but at the smaller Sea of Reeds, a marshy area at the northern end of the Gulf of Suez. An underwater earthquake may have released poisonous gases that turned the waters red.

Jacobovici said “the common wisdom is there isn’t a single piece of archeological evidence backing up the biblical story of the exodus”. Jewish scholars have reluctantly concurred that an episode central to their faith — commemorated each year at Passover — may never have taken place.

Yet Cameron and Jacobovici claim to have unearthed more than a dozen archeological relics that suggest the exodus took place three centuries earlier than biblical scholars estimate. By reinterpreting artwork at museums in Luxor, Cairo, Athens and elsewhere, Jacobovici dates the exodus to around 1500BC.

That was about the time when some geologists believe the Santorini volcano, 400 miles north of Egypt, erupted in the eastern Mediterranean. Scientists and historians have long speculated that the 10 “plagues” suffered by Egypt might have been linked in a “domino theory” of natural causes.

The documentary’s website argues that a series of earthquakes may have “destabilised the entire Nile Delta system and resulted in part of the delta sliding off the African continental shelf”. This would have raised the level of land around the Sea of Reeds, believed to have been saltwater swamps around El Balah, the now extinct lake.

“In other words, the sea parted,” the website says. “Water would have cascaded from higher ground to lower ground . . . creating dry land on which the Israelites could cross. This event would also have caused an enormous ‘backsplash’ of water, a veritable tsunami. If the waves went a mere seven miles inland they would have engulfed the Egyptian army.”

The Exodus producers believe the waters were turned red by chemicals released by underwater tremors. Something similar happened to the lakes in Cameroon in 1986. If the waters were poisoned, amphibians would hop ashore, producing the biblical plague of frogs. When the frogs died, insects would have bred on their bodies leading to plagues of locusts, fleas and lice.

They in turn would have spread disease to humans, the plague of boils, and animals, the plague of dying livestock. They would also have threatened crops, forcing the Egyptians to store grain which might have then turned mouldy. Contaminated food might account for the plague of deaths among first-born Egyptian males. Weather conditions spawned by the eruption might also have caused the plagues of hailstorms and darkness.

“It’s individual pieces that start to form a compelling pattern,” said Cameron.
 

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Breakfastologist said:
Another theory I have heard proposed is that the israelites were the priests and followers of heretic pharoah Akhenaten who were cast out after his death when his successor replaced him with the traditional egyptian pantheon.
This holds water on the basis that the reign of Akhenaten ended because the leaders of the old religion were able to prove that the new god was false as the climate had gone wrong the floods didn't happen and there was general crappiness throughout the land, just like the biblical plagues and Mozes's previously high status with the Pharaoh. Which just goes to show with the right PR an idea can carry on for eons even after a disastrous start, how many of Akhenatens run away priests would've believed that it would still be going strong and fighting its corner over 3000 years later
 

OldTimeRadio

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Re: Merenptah and Moses

Timble2 said:
....Merenptah, or Merneptah, who was the successor of Usermatre Ramesses (the Second or the Great) from around 1210 BC.
Merenptah has been put foreward as possibly the Pharaoh of the Exodus.

You see...er....ah....Merenptah died of arterioschlerosis of the heart.

"God hardened Pharaoh's heart."

Hey thar, don't you laugh at they-et one naow, 'cause it jist sort o' GROWS on ye, lak a FUNGUS.
 

OldTimeRadio

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Breakfastologist said:
Interestingly the term "Red Sea" is a mistranslation of "Reed Sea" which is a large swampy area, rather than the red sea itself.
This "pun" is said to work in ancient Hebrew as well as in modern English, which is indeed the only way in which the story makes sense.
 

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Plagues

Here are two of the reasons I accept the Exodus plagues:

1. The Egyptians of late pre-Christian antiquity seem to have been quite familiar with the Jewish religion. Thus you can find medico-magical papyri which include prayers to Jehovah right alongside and above and below invocations to Osiris, Isis, Horus and so on. (This must have really thrilled the Jews.)

Now assuming that the authors/compilers of those manuscripts were familiar with the basic history of their own country it's interesting that nobody wrote "Exodus? What a pack of incredible lies! That stuff never happened!"

2. At this period the Greek city of Alexandria possessed the largest Jewish population outside Israel. Those Jews surely spoke Egyptian as well as Hebrew and were able to read and write the language, at least in its Demotic form (which would have then been standard). So they were most likely to have been familiar with Egyptian accounts of the Plagues and apparently saw no conflict between them and their received text.

P. S. In the original posting a few moments ago I managed to misspell "Christian Antiquity" as "Christiantiquity." I expect to see this in Webster's by next June, tops.
 

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EnolaGaia

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... And the determinative symbol associated with the word 'Israel' is that used for a nation, so it would appear that, by the time of Merneptah, Israel was a fairly well established nation. Therefore, the exodus, whatever form it took, must have happened some time previously to 1210 BC
Like I said, JerryB, the hieroglyphs for 'Israel' are accompanied by a symbol which indicates that 'Israel' is a nation.
That claim clashes with the following, which attributes the opposite interpretation to the determinative(s):

While Ashkelon, Gezer and Yanoam are given the determinative for a city – a throw stick plus three mountains – the hieroglyphs that refer to Israel instead employ the throw stick (the determinative for "foreign") plus a sitting man and woman (the determinative for "people") over three vertical lines (a plural marker):
SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merneptah_Stele
 

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I was just watching "Prince Of Egypt" (very good too - didn't think I would enjoy it but they managed not to make it too "religious") and I wondered, if Moses managed to part the seas and set plagues on Egypt, and if the Passover actually took place, then is it recorded in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics or on tablets? Is there any evidence for these miracles outwith the Bible? (For example, I know that Jesus was mentioned in Roman records and accounts of the period.)
According to a lot of research coming out of Israeli Universities, the Jews were in fact never in captivity in Egypt, and the whole story of Moses and the captivity is actually a sketchy reference to Hammurabi and the Babylonian captivity. Given that this is coming from Israelis, one can hardly call it anti-Semitic, despite the fact that it distinctly implies that the people in captivity had no idea what country they were in, or that they spent 40 years trying to walk a couple of hundred miles, or that the Red Sea might actually be referencing the Persian Gulf. Biblical Geography=Epic Fail? Well, they were Flat Earthers, so who knows, amirite? https://www.biblestudytools.com/topical-verses/bible-verses-about-flat-earth/

Hammurabi is a good fit for Moses as he DID create great tablets of the laws, and he was a baby in a basket found by a princess. Of course, that would mean that the mighty tablets of the Law are to be found in the British Museum. Arc of the Covenant? Jerusalem in Englands green and pleasant land? Well... there are all those bombings I suppose, so the similarity isn't completely absurd.

Here are a few links:
http://baconeatingatheistjew.blogspot.com/2008/07/was-moses-really-hammurabi.html

https://reformjudaism.org/were-jews-slaves-egypt

https://english.tau.ac.il/news/exodus_history_and_myth

Obviously there is a segment of Fundamentalism (primarily in Christianity) that wants to pretend that the Bible is the inviolable word of God (a very odd concept as it is a claim also made by the Muslims for the Koran), and perfect in every degree, despite being a human written historical document that is obviously riddled with factual errors from page 1 onwards. It is mildly funny that the Fundamentalist Christians seem so much more invested in the perfection of the Torah than the Jews.

It has frequently been suggested that the Hyksos were actually Jews, but most archaeologists say this isn't the case despite the fact that they admit that they were Canaanite invaders from Palestine who spoke a Semitic language. If there were going to be a Jewish captivity, then a defeated Hyksos people being expelled from Egypt is about the only known fit imo, and not a good one. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyksos

It is true that under various Pharaohs that Palestine was under Egyptian control, but the Egyptians weren't the slave mongers that 19th Century historians and archaeologists often portrayed them as. Babylonians however were a lot less PC on the whole slavery thing. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_ancient_Egypt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_captivity
 
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ramonmercado

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According to a lot of research coming out of Israeli Universities, the Jews were in fact never in captivity in Egypt, and the whole story of Moses and the captivity is actually a sketchy reference to Hammurabi and the Babylonian captivity. Given that this is coming from Israelis, one can hardly call it anti-Semitic, despite the fact that it distinctly implies that the people in captivity had no idea what country they were in, or that they spent 40 years trying to walk a couple of hundred miles, or that the Red Sea might actually be referencing the Persian Gulf. Biblical Geography=Epic Fail? Well, they were Flat Earthers, so who knows, amirite? https://www.biblestudytools.com/topical-verses/bible-verses-about-flat-earth/

Hammurabi is a good fit for Moses as he DID create great tablets of the laws, and he was a baby in a basket found by a princess. Of course, that would mean that the mighty tablets of the Law are to be found in the British Museum. Arc of the Covenant? Jerusalem in Englands green and pleasant land? Well... there are all those bombings I suppose, so the similarity isn't completely absurd.

Here are a few links:
http://baconeatingatheistjew.blogspot.com/2008/07/was-moses-really-hammurabi.html

https://reformjudaism.org/were-jews-slaves-egypt

https://english.tau.ac.il/news/exodus_history_and_myth

Obviously there is a segment of Fundamentalism (primarily in Christianity) that wants to pretend that the Bible is the inviolable word of God (a very odd concept as it is a claim also made by the Muslims for the Koran), and perfect in every degree, despite being a human written historical document that is obviously riddled with factual errors from page 1 onwards. It is mildly funny that the Fundamentalist Christians seem so much more invested in the perfection of the Torah than the Jews.

It has frequently been suggested that the Hyksos were actually Jews, but most archaeologists say this isn't the case despite the fact that they admit that they were Canaanite invaders from Palestine who spoke a Semitic language. If there were going to be a Jewish captivity, then a defeated Hyksos people being expelled from Egypt is about the only known fit imo, and not a good one. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyksos

It is true that under various Pharaohs that Palestine was under Egyptian control, but the Egyptians weren't the slave mongers that 19th Century historians and archaeologists often portrayed them as. Babylonians however were a lot less PC on the whole slavery thing. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_ancient_Egypt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babylonian_captivity
Interesting new findings on the Hyksos.

Ancient Egypt’s first “foreign” takeover may actually have been an inside job.

About 3600 years ago, the pharaohs briefly lost control of northern Egypt to the Hyksos, rulers who looked and behaved like people from an area stretching from present-day Syria in the north to Israel in the south. The traditional explanation is that the Hyksos were an invading force. But a fresh analysis of skeletons from the ancient Hyksos capital suggests an alternative: The Hyksos were Egyptian-born members of an immigrant community that rose up and grabbed power.

The pharaohs ruled Egypt from about 3100 B.C.E. to 30 B.C.E., but they weren’t always in complete command of their territory. One period of vulnerability began around 1800 B.C.E., with a succession of ineffectual pharaohs who struggled to maintain order. The Hyksos took advantage of the power vacuum by seizing control of northern Egypt, according to ancient texts, leaving the pharaohs in charge of only a tiny strip of land to the south. ...

Archaeologists know the Hyksos were unlike typical Egyptians: They had names like those of people from the neighboring region of southwest Asia. Ancient artwork depicts them wearing long, multicolored clothes, unlike normal Egyptian white attire. But exactly who they were has been unclear.

As such, Stantis suggests the Hyksos rulers were not necessarily foreign-born invaders, but might instead have emerged from a centuries-old immigrant community living in Avaris, her team reports today in PLOS ONE.

Historian and archaeologist Anna-Latifa Mourad at Macquarie University thinks this conclusion makes sense. Archaeologists have found little evidence for the fighting and destruction that should have occurred at Avaris if the city had been captured by foreign invaders. ...

The Hyksos ruled for 100 years, and then the pharaohs recaptured their territory. Researchers have speculated that the pharaonic forces banished the Hyksos rulers to southwest Asia—and that the punishment may have helped inspire Exodus, the biblical story in which the Israelites left Egypt and, eventually, reached the promised land in southwest Asia. ...

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/202...ypt-may-have-actually-been-immigrant-uprising
 
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