Modern Human Origins

Mungoman

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That seems a very liberal use of the word Civilization.

The Aboriginal Australian was horrified to observe the punishment and general treatment of the first fleet convicts by their 'betters' - their idea of being civil to each other, what they do and how and how they do it, is the basis of the word civilisation, in their mind.

Having a social system that forces people to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars, causing them to suffer and endure for lengthy periods of time before dying, due to erratic cellular formations in their bodies misconstrues the word civilisation, when the idea of a national health system would work, and would work well.

Invading a country, or using a clandestine section of society to unsettle a foreign government, and in consequence, encourage a small disgruntled section to rise up, after arming them, for whatever singular purpose, is not my idea of being civilised.

Having a system such as capitalism to be the method that society must depend on, even though it is a ponzie system designed by, and for a very small percentage of people, meanwhile, knowing fullwell that it will only benefit those on top of the muckheap is not civilisation as I know it

The idea of caging people for long periods of their life because they stole food is a poor reflection on that societies idea of being civilised, conversely, not punishing a group of people who created that shitstorm, initialised as the WFC, that contributed to hundreds of millions of people worldwide who lost their homes, their occupations and in quite a few incidences their freedom, due to stealing just to feed themselves is also a poor reflection on the use of that word 'civilisation

Civilisation.
n.

An advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions.

Civilisation.
n.

Blackwhite; Duckspeak.
 

ramonmercado

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Siberian Town Stakes a Claim as Humanity’s Cradle
By ANDREW E. KRAMEROCT. 19, 2016

SOLONESHNOYE, Russia — Wood smoke hangs like a mist over this town, nestled in a valley deep in Siberia. The log houses lean at jaunty angles, dogs bark in the yards and cows, their neck bells clanging, walk the dusty streets.
  • At once picturesque and poor, Soloneshnoye, like so much of rural
    Russia
    , was passed over by the oil boom and bust of faraway Moscow.

    But for all its woes, the town may have found its ticket in another form of fossil fuel: human prehistory, linked to discoveries of ancient bones in the area.

    In an emerging model of evolution, widely supported by scientists, different types of early humans, including Neanderthals, interbred and left their genetic traces with many of us today. It is a theory known in the scientific literature as “admixture between archaic and anatomically modern humans.”

    Piece by piece — a finger bone here, a toe there — the nearby Denisova cave has been yielding clues central to this scientific narrative. It has given rise to hopes for a tourism industry and scientific conferences here that could give the town’s fortunes a boost.

    “Every year, we find something interesting,” said Aleksandr S. Voronov, the mayor. Just this summer, the cave produced a new find: the world’s oldest known needle. “The more we find, the more interesting it becomes,” he said.

    The discoveries encapsulate what scientists say makes this place unique: It is the only spot on earth where bones of three types of early humans, Neanderthal, Denisovan and homo sapiens, have all been discovered, though they did not necessarily live here at the same time.
    The area has a long way to go before it can give the Lascaux cave in southern France a run for its money. So far, the town has opened a paleoanthropology wing at the local museum, and the regional government plans to pave the road to the Denisova cave.

    Along the route, a cave man-themed roadside attraction has popped up. Called the “Cradle of Humanity,” it shows various types of cave dwellers — hairy, bucktoothed and wide-eyed — with information on their transformation from apelike to more recognizably human. The display captures the strange overlap in evolution that allowed interbreeding.

    A guest lodge for visitors and scientists has opened near the cave. A few miles away, another lodge doubles as a retreat for soaking in a tub of a traditional Mongolian medicinal bath, in water with fermented deer antlers. A third lodge is under construction.

    In the summer months, vacationers come by the busload from around Russia. Recently, some Dutch tourists arrived in a camper van.

    The 50,000-year-old needle found this summer was an intriguing example of human ingenuity. But that is not the Denisova cave’s main draw.

    The cave — at 2,900 square feet, about the size of a home in the American suburbs — has become a center of study into ancient hominid interbreeding.
http://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/20/w...-stakes-a-claim-as-humanitys-cradle.html?_r=0
 

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Ostrich Eggshell Beads Found in Denisova Cave
Tuesday, November 01, 2016



(Maksim Kozlikin)
NOVOSIBIRSK, RUSSIA—The Siberian Timesreports that beads made of ostrich eggshells were discovered in Denisova Cave, which is located in the Altai Mountains. The beads measure less than one-half inch in diameter and are thought to be between 45,000 and 50,000 years old. “This is an amazing piece of work,” said researcher Maksim Kozlikin of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography. “The ostrich eggshell is quite robust material, but the holes in the beads must have been made with a fine stone drill.” He thinks the beads could have been part of a bracelet or a necklace, or may have been sewn into clothing. The presence of the beads in Denisova Cave suggests that the people who lived there had trade contacts to import either the eggshells or the finished beads. The jewelry items were found in the same archaeological layer where a bracelet made of dark green stone was found in 2008. For more, go to “Letter from Siberia: Fortress of Solitude.”

http://www.archaeology.org/news/4981-161101-denisova-cave-beads
 

ramonmercado

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New evidence that Lucy, our most famous ancestor, had superstrong arms

You probably know her as Lucy.

Discovered in 1974, wedged into a gully in Ethiopia's Awash Valley, the delicate, diminutive skeleton is both uncannily familiar and alluringly strange. In some ways, the 3.2-million-year-old Australopithecus was a lot like us; her hips, feet and long legs were clearly made for walking. But she also had long arms and dexterous curved fingers, much like modern apes that still swing from the trees.

So, for decades scientists have wondered: Who exactly was Lucy? Was she lumbering and land-bound, like us modern humans? Or did she retain some of the ancient climbing abilities that made her ancestors — and our own — champions of the treetops?

A new study suggests she was a little of both: Though her lower limbs were adapted for bipedalism, she had exceptionally strong arm bones that allowed her to haul herself up branches, researchers reported Wednesday in the journal PLoS One.

“This is what makes Lucy so fascinating,” said lead author Christopher Ruff, a biological anthropologist at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. “She had crossed a lot of thresholds on the path to becoming human, but not all of them.” ...

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news...had-super-strong-arms/?utm_term=.3b2362af9599
 

skinny

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She was a remarkable creature. This is the field that drew me to university as a mature-age student, back in the early 90s before the old tree had branched out. Still a fascinating area of discovery and wonder. Can we envisage a time when genetically reincarnated archaic specimens will live again contemporaneously with moderns?
 

ramonmercado

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Ostrich Eggshell Beads Found in Denisova Cave
Tuesday, November 01, 2016



(Maksim Kozlikin)
NOVOSIBIRSK, RUSSIA—The Siberian Timesreports that beads made of ostrich eggshells were discovered in Denisova Cave, which is located in the Altai Mountains. The beads measure less than one-half inch in diameter and are thought to be between 45,000 and 50,000 years old. “This is an amazing piece of work,” said researcher Maksim Kozlikin of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography. “The ostrich eggshell is quite robust material, but the holes in the beads must have been made with a fine stone drill.” He thinks the beads could have been part of a bracelet or a necklace, or may have been sewn into clothing. The presence of the beads in Denisova Cave suggests that the people who lived there had trade contacts to import either the eggshells or the finished beads. The jewelry items were found in the same archaeological layer where a bracelet made of dark green stone was found in 2008. For more, go to “Letter from Siberia: Fortress of Solitude.”

http://www.archaeology.org/news/4981-161101-denisova-cave-beads
More on finds in the Denisova Cave.

40,000-year-old bracelet made by extinct human species found

In what is quite an amazing discovery, scientists have confirmed that a bracelet found in Siberia is 40,000 years old. This makes it the oldest piece of jewelry ever discovered, and archeologists have been taken aback by the level of its sophistication.

The bracelet was discovered in a site called the Denisova Cave in Siberia, close to Russia's border with China and Mongolia. It was found next to the bones of extinct animals, such as the wooly mammoth, and other artifacts dating back 125,000 years.

The cave is named after the Denisovan people — a mysterious species of hominins from the Homo genus, who are genetically different from both Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

We know that the Denisovans migrated out of Africa sometime after the first wave of Homo erectus, and well before us, Homo sapiens.

The Denisovans were unique in many ways, having branched away from other humanoid ancestors some 1 million years ago. Indeed, the recent discovery of a female Denisovan finger bone and various teeth shows that they had no morphological similarities to either Neanderthals or modern humans.

However, tens of thousands of years later, and prior to becoming extinct, they did coexist with us and the Neanderthals for a period, and skeletal remains of hybrids, and genetic studies confirm that they also mated with our forebears and the Neanderthals.

Strangely, however, DNA evidence also suggests that, at some point, the Denisovans must have interbred with an as yet unknown and undiscovered species of humans beings.

Skeletal remains show that the Denisovans were probably far more robust and powerful than modern humans, and were, until now, assumed to be a more primitive, archaic type of humans than us.

But, the discovery of the bracelet suggests this was far from true. Amazingly, the skill involved in making this adornment shows a level of technique at least 30,000 years ahead of its time. ...

Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/scien...ecies-discovered/article/432798#ixzz4h99Ow99y
 

Vardoger

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Europe was the birthplace of mankind, not Africa, scientists find

An artist's reconstruction of Graecopithecus freybergi, left, with the jawbone and tooth found in Bulgaria and Greece CREDIT: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
22 MAY 2017 • 7:00PM
The history of human evolution has been rewritten after scientists discovered that Europe was the birthplace of mankind, not Africa.

Currently, most experts believe that our human lineage split from apes around seven million years ago in central Africa, where hominids remained for the next five million years before venturing further afield.

But two fossils of an ape-like creature which had human-like teeth have been found in Bulgaria and Greece, dating to 7.2 million years ago.

The discovery of the creature, named Graecopithecus freybergi, and nicknameded ‘El Graeco' by scientists, proves our ancestors were already starting to evolve in Europe 200,000 years before the earliest African hominid.

An international team of researchers say the findings entirely change the beginning of human history and place the last common ancestor of both chimpanzees and humans - the so-called Missing Link - in the Mediterranean region.

At that time climate change had turned Eastern Europe into an open savannah which forced apes to find new food sources, sparking a shift towards bipedalism, the researchers believe.

“This study changes the ideas related to the knowledge about the time and the place of the first steps of the humankind,” said Professor Nikolai Spassov from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

“Graecopithecus is not an ape. He is a member of the tribe of hominins and the direct ancestor of homo.

“The food of the Graecopithecus was related to the rather dry and hard savannah vegetation, unlike that of the recent great apes which are leaving in forests. Therefore, like humans, he has wide molars and thick enamel.

Even more text at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/05/22/europe-birthplace-mankind-not-africa-scientists-find/
 

Swifty

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Europe was the birthplace of mankind, not Africa, scientists find

An artist's reconstruction of Graecopithecus freybergi, left, with the jawbone and tooth found in Bulgaria and Greece CREDIT: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
22 MAY 2017 • 7:00PM
The history of human evolution has been rewritten after scientists discovered that Europe was the birthplace of mankind, not Africa.

Currently, most experts believe that our human lineage split from apes around seven million years ago in central Africa, where hominids remained for the next five million years before venturing further afield.

But two fossils of an ape-like creature which had human-like teeth have been found in Bulgaria and Greece, dating to 7.2 million years ago.

The discovery of the creature, named Graecopithecus freybergi, and nicknameded ‘El Graeco' by scientists, proves our ancestors were already starting to evolve in Europe 200,000 years before the earliest African hominid.

An international team of researchers say the findings entirely change the beginning of human history and place the last common ancestor of both chimpanzees and humans - the so-called Missing Link - in the Mediterranean region.

At that time climate change had turned Eastern Europe into an open savannah which forced apes to find new food sources, sparking a shift towards bipedalism, the researchers believe.

“This study changes the ideas related to the knowledge about the time and the place of the first steps of the humankind,” said Professor Nikolai Spassov from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

“Graecopithecus is not an ape. He is a member of the tribe of hominins and the direct ancestor of homo.

“The food of the Graecopithecus was related to the rather dry and hard savannah vegetation, unlike that of the recent great apes which are leaving in forests. Therefore, like humans, he has wide molars and thick enamel.

Even more text at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/05/22/europe-birthplace-mankind-not-africa-scientists-find/
They look more like modern North Norfolk teeth to me.
 

Kingsize Wombat

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Here we go. More news from Jebel Irhoud - Human history revised again.
Scientists Have Found the Oldest Known Human Fossils

The 300,000-year-old bones and stone tools were discovered in a surprising place—and could revise the history of our species.

Their presence in north Africa complicates what was once a tidy picture of humanity arising in the east of the continent. “What people, including myself, used to think was that there was a cradle of humankind in East Africa about 200,000 years ago, and all modern humans descend from that population,” says Philipp Gunz from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, who was involved in the new excavation. “The new finds indicate that Homo sapiens is much older and had already spread across all of Africa by 300,000 years ago. They really show that the African story of our species was more complex than what we used to think.”

These people had very similar faces to today’s humans, albeit with slightly more prominent brows. But the backs of their heads were very different. Our skulls are rounded globes, but theirs were lower on the top and longer at the back. If you saw them face on, they could pass for a modern human. But they turned around, you’d be looking at a skull that’s closer to extinct hominids like Homo erectus. “Today, you wouldn’t be able to find anyone with a braincase that shape,” says Gunz.

Source: https://www.theatlantic.com/science...s-have-been-found-in-an-unusual-place/529452/
 
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ramonmercado

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More on Human-Neanderthal interbreeding, possibly going back more than 200,00 years.

We may have mated with Neanderthals more than 219,000 years ago

It’s a sex-laced mystery. If modern humans didn’t reach Europe until about 60,000 years ago, how has DNA from them turned up in a Neanderthal fossil in Germany from 124,000 years ago?

The answer seems to be that there was a previous migration of early humans – more than 219,000 years ago. One that we’re only just starting to reveal from piecemeal evidence that is DNA extracted from fossilised bones.

The story, as far as we knew it, was that the ancestors of modern humans diverged from Neanderthals and Denisovans between 550,000 and 765,000 years ago. While Neanderthals and Denisovans inhabited Eurasia, modern humans stayed in Africa until about 60,000 years ago. Then they entered Europe, too. ...

https://www.newscientist.com/articl...id=SOC|NSNS|2017-Echobox#link_time=1499246692

Learn more at New Scientist Live in London Come see our expert talk: ‘Why is there only one species of human?’
There is ample evidence of breeding between Neanderthals and the ancestors of modern humans some 50,000 years ago. “Everyone knows Neanderthals gave us genes,” says Cosimo Posth at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Leipzig, Germany.
 

blessmycottonsocks

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More on Human-Neanderthal interbreeding, possibly going back more than 200,00 years.

We may have mated with Neanderthals more than 219,000 years ago

It’s a sex-laced mystery. If modern humans didn’t reach Europe until about 60,000 years ago, how has DNA from them turned up in a Neanderthal fossil in Germany from 124,000 years ago?

The answer seems to be that there was a previous migration of early humans – more than 219,000 years ago. One that we’re only just starting to reveal from piecemeal evidence that is DNA extracted from fossilised bones.

The story, as far as we knew it, was that the ancestors of modern humans diverged from Neanderthals and Denisovans between 550,000 and 765,000 years ago. While Neanderthals and Denisovans inhabited Eurasia, modern humans stayed in Africa until about 60,000 years ago. Then they entered Europe, too. ...

https://www.newscientist.com/articl...id=SOC|NSNS|2017-Echobox#link_time=1499246692

Learn more at New Scientist Live in London Come see our expert talk: ‘Why is there only one species of human?’
There is ample evidence of breeding between Neanderthals and the ancestors of modern humans some 50,000 years ago. “Everyone knows Neanderthals gave us genes,” says Cosimo Posth at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Leipzig, Germany.
Very interesting! The more we uncover about human evolution, the more mysterious and convoluted the story becomes.
 

EnolaGaia

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... The more we uncover about human evolution, the more mysterious and convoluted the story becomes.
This heightened complexity for the human storyline shouldn't be all that surprising. We're the only species who will deliberately (e.g.) migrate or stay firmly in one place as a result of some abstract motivation perceptible only to ourselves - regardless of the more obvious physical, geographical, and / or ecological factors that would pretty much determine the issue for other animals.
 

ramonmercado

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And I have just read an interesting novel set 30,000 years ago, during the Ice Ages.

Shaman by Kim Stanley Robinson. Interbreeding is a minor topic in it.
 

EnolaGaia

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In particular, some tools were sandwiched in ash from the famous Toba eruption that geologists can date very accurately to 74,000 years ago.
Now there are biological remains (as opposed to artifacts ... ) which corroborate this earlier scenario ...

Early humans may have seen a supervolcano explosion up close
... Many archaeologists were puzzled by the recent discovery of 65,000-year-old stone tools and other artefacts in northern Australia. According to traditional thinking, early members of our species, Homo sapiens, were just beginning to venture out of Africa at this time.

To get from Africa to Australia, H. sapiens would also have needed to march across mainland Asia, then sail across the sea. The route should have included a stopover on the islands of Indonesia and Timor, but no H. sapiens artefacts older than 45,000 years had been found on these islands, until now. ...

The team took another look at two teeth dug up by Dutch archaeologist Eugène Dubois in Lida Ajer cave on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in the late 19th century. Partly through comparisons with orangutan fossils found nearby, they confirmed the teeth belong to our species – and using a modern dating technique known as electron spin resonance dating, they dated them between 63,000 and 73,000 years old. ...

But the archaeology hints that the first members of our species to reach Sumatra faced a tough life. They may have been present in Sumatra when the island’s now-dormant supervolcano – Toba – gave rise to one of Earth’s biggest known eruptions, perhaps about 71,000 years ago according to recent estimates. ...
FULL STORY: https://www.newscientist.com/articl...-have-seen-a-supervolcano-explosion-up-close/
 

skinny

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That's big. Not a conclusive report, as is to be expected, but I'll certainly be following the developments.
 

skinny

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blessmycottonsocks

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Also posted to the latest FT (359) thread, where this amazing story features on page 16.

Modern-looking hominid footprints found in 5.7 million (yes!) year old strata on Crete.

Here's the New Scientist article on these amazing footprints:

https://www.newscientist.com/articl...ints-suggest-we-evolved-in-europe-not-africa/

Unlike FT, NS doesn't call these modern looking, but does make the point that they were left by a bipedal hominid, walking on the soles of the feet and with a well-developed but non-opposable big toe. In this respect, they certainly look more modern than those of the more recent ardipithecus ramidus, who had an opposable big toe. If verified, these prints challenge the traditional out of Africa hypothesis.
Humankind's history just got a helluva lot stranger!
 

GNC

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I was going to mention that too, the theory seems to be that humanity developed independently in a few places around the globe, not just Africa, and happened to evolve in the same way to create similar races. Sounds unlikely, but there's some proof in Crete. A bit shameful that it also says the investigation was nearly suppressed, too.
 

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I was going to mention that too, the theory seems to be that humanity developed independently in a few places around the globe, not just Africa, and happened to evolve in the same way to create similar races. Sounds unlikely, but there's some proof in Crete. A bit shameful that it also says the investigation was nearly suppressed, too.
Exactly right. There is so much political collateral invested in the "we are all African" mantra, that any evidence to the contrary is likely to be met with as much hostility as Copernicus' heliocentric model or, indeed, Darwin's theory.
I await further analysis of this potentially history-rewriting discovery, but reports like this simply remind me why I love Fortean topics!
 

Mungoman

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I was going to mention that too, the theory seems to be that humanity developed independently in a few places around the globe, not just Africa, and happened to evolve in the same way to create similar races. Sounds unlikely, but there's some proof in Crete. A bit shameful that it also says the investigation was nearly suppressed, too.

Your last sentence, GNC, does not surprise me in the least mate.
 

Xanatic*

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The publication rather than the investigation. There's more dogma than there should be. I read a book by an early proponent of plate tectonics, who also mentioned how hard it was at first to even get someone to publish articles.
I was surprised to learn that Per Ahlberg is not my old teacher, turns out Sweden has two paleontologists by that name.
 

Kingsize Wombat

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If verified, these prints challenge the traditional out of Africa hypothesis.
Humankind's history just got a helluva lot stranger!
I always thought the idea that a single group of Hominids left Africa sounded silly. There would have waves and waves of Hominids leaving Africa, evolving separately in different places, and later intermingling again.

You do not need a single origin point for humans more than you need a single origin point for rabbits.

We need to get rid of the idea that we are somehow a special, single species. We're all mongrels, made up from different ancestors.

That's my theory.
 

Monstrosa

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I always thought the idea that a single group of Hominids left Africa sounded silly. There would have waves and waves of Hominids leaving Africa, evolving separately in different places, and later intermingling again.

You do not need a single origin point for humans more than you need a single origin point for rabbits.

We need to get rid of the idea that we are somehow a special, single species. We're all mongrels, made up from different ancestors.

That's my theory.
Rabbits do have a single origin point - the Iberian peninsula.
 

blessmycottonsocks

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Although Michael Cremo does stray rather close to Von Daniken territory at times, he did make some very valid points in "Forbidden Archaeology" about scientific orthodoxy's reluctance to acknowledge any evidence that rocks the boat.
 
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