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Newly Discovered Or Recognized Human Organs & Body Structures

Yithian

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The answer, I suppose, depends on how one defines an organ, but by one measure at least the response to the thread's title should be in the affirmative. It sounds--on the face of it--implausible: that this far into the development of modern medicine science could conceivably have discovered something that could accurately be described as, at least, organ-like in the human body, an entity with which we are so familiar. The truth, of course is that beyond the canonical-ish 11, there are a great many more 'organs' in the human body, some less readily discernible than others. The explanation for the elusiveness of this new discovery is in the text.

Newly-discovered human organ may help explain how cancer spreads
By Jessica Hamzelou

A newly discovered network of fluid-filled channels in the human body may be a previously-unknown organ, and it seems to help transport cancer cells around the body.

This discovery was made by chance, from routine endoscopies – a procedure that involves inserting a thin camera into a person’s gastrointestinal tract. Newer approaches enable doctors to use this procedure to get a microscopic look at the tissue inside a person’s gut at the same time, with some surprising results.

One team had expected to find that the bile duct is surrounded by a hard, dense wall of tissue. But instead, they saw weird, unexplained patterns. They took their findings to Neil Theise, a pathologist at New York University School of Medicine.

Shock absorbers
When Theise used the same endomicroscopy device to look under the skin of his own nose, he saw a similar result. Further investigation of other organs suggested that these patterns are made by a type of fluid moving through channels that are everywhere in the body.

Theise reckons that every tissue in the body may be surrounded by a network of these channels, which essentially form an organ. The team estimate that the organ contains around a fifth of the total fluid volume of the human body. “We think they act as shock absorbers,” says Theise.

This organ was likely never seen before because standard approaches for processing and visualising human tissue causes the channels to drain, and the collagen fibres that give the network its structure to collapse in on themselves. This would have made the channels appear like a hard wall of dense protective tissue, instead of a fluid-filled cushion.


Continued with discussion of a link with the transmission of cancer:
https://www.newscientist.com/articl...an-organ-may-help-explain-how-cancer-spreads/
 
It is quite surprising. I believe it's only recently they discovered that we have a large clump of neurons near our stomach as well.
 
It is quite surprising. I believe it's only recently they discovered that we have a large clump of neurons near our stomach as well.

Apparently we have more neurons (brain cells) around our stomachs than a cat has in its entire brain.
So when we say we have ‘gut instinct’. . .
 
A mysterious structure - presumed to be a set of glands - has been discovered in the back of the nasopharynx, in the center of the human head. It may be a previously unrecognized set of salivary glands. Its location suggests radiotherapy should avoid irradiating it as often as has occurred before knowing it's there.
Scientists Just Discovered a Mysterious Organ Lurking in The Centre of The Human Head

Medical researchers have made a surprise anatomical discovery, finding what looks to be a mysterious set of salivary glands hidden inside the human head – which somehow have been missed by scientists for centuries up until now.

This "unknown entity" was identified by accident by doctors in the Netherlands, who were examining prostate cancer patients with an advanced type of scan called PSMA PET/CT. When paired with injections of radioactive glucose, this diagnostic tool highlights tumours in the body.

In this case, however, it showed up something else entirely, nestled in the rear of the nasopharynx, and quite the long-time lurker.

"People have three sets of large salivary glands, but not there," explains radiation oncologist Wouter Vogel from the Netherlands Cancer Institute.

"As far as we knew, the only salivary or mucous glands in the nasopharynx are microscopically small, and up to 1,000 are evenly spread out throughout the mucosa. So, imagine our surprise when we found these." ...

The new discovery made by Vogel's team is much larger, showing what appears to be a previously overlooked pair of glands – ostensibly the fourth set of major salivary glands – located behind the nose and above the palate, close to the centre of the human head. ...

"We call them tubarial glands, referring to their anatomical location [above the torus tubarius]." ...

FULL STORY:
https://www.sciencealert.com/chance...an-lurking-in-human-head-missed-for-centuries

PUBLISHED REPORT:
The tubarial salivary glands: A potential new organ at risk for radiotherapy

Matthijs H. Valstar, Bernadette S. de Bakker, Roel J.H.M. Steenbakkers, Johannes A. Langendijk,
Ludi E. Smeele, Wouter V. Vogel, et al.

Published:September 22, 2020

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.09.034

Full Report Accessible At:
https://www.thegreenjournal.com/article/S0167-8140(20)30809-4/fulltext
 
Following clues from old anatomical texts, medical researchers re-analyzed the muscle structures that raise and lower the lower jaw. They found the old texts' suggestions were correct - there was another, as yet unnamed, layer of muscle that's individually and uniquely responsible for certain jaw movements.
Scientists discover new part of the body

cientists recently uncovered a part of the body that had never been described before: a deep layer of muscle in the masseter, which raises the lower jaw and is critical for chewing.

Modern anatomy textbooks describe the masseter muscle as having two layers, one deep and one superficial. "However, a few historical texts mention the possible existence of a third layer as well, but they are extremely inconsistent as to its position," the study authors wrote ... So the team decided to check whether the prominent jaw muscle might have a hidden, super-deep layer, as the historical texts suggest.

To do so, they dissected 12 human cadaver heads that had been preserved in formaldehyde; they also took CT scans of 16 "fresh" cadavers and reviewed an MRI scan from a living subject ... Through these examinations, they identified an "anatomically distinct" third layer of the masseter muscle. This deep, deep layer runs from the zygomatic process — a bony projection that forms part of the "cheek bones" and can be felt just in front of the ear — to the coronoid process — a triangular projection on the lower jawbone. ...

"This deep section of the masseter muscle is clearly distinguishable from the two other layers in terms of its course and function," first author Szilvia Mezey ... said in a statement. Based on the arrangement of the muscle fibers, the muscle layer likely helps stabilize the lower jaw by "elevating and retracting" the coronoid process ... And in fact, the newfound muscle layer is the only part of the masseter that can pull the jawbone backward, Mezey said. ...

"Although it's generally assumed that anatomical research in the last 100 years has left no stone unturned, our finding is a bit like zoologists discovering a new species of vertebrate," senior author Dr. Jens Christoph Türp, a professor and clinician at the University Center for Dental Medicine Basel, said ...
FULL STORY: https://www.livescience.com/new-body-part-in-jaw-discovered

PUBLISHED RESEARCH REPORT:
Szilvia E. Mezey, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, Mireille Toranelli, Jens Christoph Türp,
The human masseter muscle revisited: First description of its coronoid part
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger,
Volume 240, 2022,151879, ISSN 0940-9602.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2021.151879.

FULL RESEARCH REPORT:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0940960221002053?via=ihub
 
Following clues from old anatomical texts, medical researchers re-analyzed the muscle structures that raise and lower the lower jaw. They found the old texts' suggestions were correct - there was another, as yet unnamed, layer of muscle that's individually and uniquely responsible for certain jaw movements.

FULL STORY: https://www.livescience.com/new-body-part-in-jaw-discovered

PUBLISHED RESEARCH REPORT:
Szilvia E. Mezey, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, Mireille Toranelli, Jens Christoph Türp,
The human masseter muscle revisited: First description of its coronoid part
Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger,
Volume 240, 2022,151879, ISSN 0940-9602.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2021.151879.

FULL RESEARCH REPORT:
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0940960221002053?via=ihub
Who else felt their cheekbone and jaw? Then read on and moved their jaw in and out? :)


Just me then.
 
A previously unrecognized category of cells in human lungs has been discovered and studied. These cells operate to maintain lung function and repair damage. As such, they may serve as the basis for future treatments for degenerative respiratory conditions.
New part of the body found hiding in the lungs

Scientists have discovered a brand-new type of cell hiding inside the delicate, branching passageways of human lungs. The newfound cells play a vital role in keeping the respiratory system functioning properly and could even inspire new treatments to reverse the effects of certain smoking-related diseases, according to a new study.

The cells, known as respiratory airway secretory (RAS) cells, are found in tiny, branching passages known as bronchioles, which are tipped with alveoli, the teensy air sacs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the bloodstream. The new RAS cells are similar to stem cells — "blank canvas" cells that can differentiate into any other type of cell in the body — and are capable of repairing damaged alveoli cells and transforming into new ones. ...

Researchers discovered the RAS cells after becoming increasingly frustrated by the limitations of relying on the lungs of mice as models for the human respiratory system. However, because of certain differences between the two, scientists have struggled to fill some knowledge gaps about human lungs. To get a better understanding of these differences on a cellular level, the team took lung tissue samples from healthy human donors and analyzed the genes within individual cells, which revealed the previously unknown RAS cells. ...

RAS cells serve two main functions in the lungs. First, they secrete molecules that maintain the fluid lining along bronchioles, helping to prevent the tiny airways from collapsing and maximizing the efficiency of the lungs. Second, they can act as progenitor cells for alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, a special type of alveoli that secrete a chemical that is used in part to repair other damaged alveoli. (A progenitor cell is a cell that has the capacity to differentiate into another type of cell, similar to how stem cells differentiate into other cells.) ...
FULL STORY: https://www.livescience.com/new-body-cell-discovered-in-lungs
 
Here are the bibliographic details and abstract for the published research report.


Basil, M.C., Cardenas-Diaz, F.L., Kathiriya, J.J. et al.
Human distal airways contain a multipotent secretory cell that can regenerate alveoli.
Nature 604, 120–126 (2022).
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04552-0

Abstract
The human lung differs substantially from its mouse counterpart, resulting in a distinct distal airway architecture affected by disease pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In humans, the distal branches of the airway interweave with the alveolar gas-exchange niche, forming an anatomical structure known as the respiratory bronchioles. Owing to the lack of a counterpart in mouse, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern respiratory bronchioles in the human lung remain uncharacterized. Here we show that human respiratory bronchioles contain a unique secretory cell population that is distinct from cells in larger proximal airways. Organoid modelling reveals that these respiratory airway secretory (RAS) cells act as unidirectional progenitors for alveolar type 2 cells, which are essential for maintaining and regenerating the alveolar niche. RAS cell lineage differentiation into alveolar type 2 cells is regulated by Notch and Wnt signalling. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, RAS cells are altered transcriptionally, corresponding to abnormal alveolar type 2 cell states, which are associated with smoking exposure in both humans and ferrets. These data identify a distinct progenitor in a region of the human lung that is not found in mouse that has a critical role in maintaining the gas-exchange compartment and is altered in chronic lung disease.

SOURCE: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04552-0
 
Do these count?

'Obelisks': Entirely New Class of Life Has Been Found in The Human Digestive System


Peering into the jungle of microbes that live within us, researchers have stumbled across what seem to be an entire new class of virus-like objects.

"It's insane," says University of North Carolina cell biologist Mark Peifer. "The more we look, the more crazy things we see."

These mysterious bits of genetic material have no detectable sequences or even structural similarities known to any other biological agents.

So Stanford University biologist Ivan Zheludev and colleagues argue their strange discovery may not be viruses at all, but instead an entirely new group of entities that may help bridge the ancient gap between the simplest genetic molecules and more complex viruses.

"Obelisks comprise a class of diverse RNAs that have colonized, and gone unnoticed in, human, and global microbiomes," the researchers write.

Named after the highly-symmetrical, rod-like structures formed by its twisted lengths of RNA, the Obelisks' genetic sequences are only around 1,000 characters (nucleotides) in size. In fact, this brevity is likely one of the reasons we've failed to notice them previously.

https://www.sciencealert.com/obelis...-has-been-found-in-the-human-digestive-system

maximus otter
 
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