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The First Americans (Peopling Of The Americas)

Another View of Kensington Rune Sone

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Source: Anderson, Rasmus Björn. Another view of Kensington rune stone. (Menasha, Wis, 1920)
Reprinted from the Wisconsin Magazine of Hstory, Vol. III, No. 4, June 1920
 

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An African Art Object in Apparently Early Archaeological Context in El Salvador
Overview:

In 1967 Boggs was shown a carved bone artifact which had allegedly been encountered under almost six feet of undisturbed soil near the town of Colon in El Salvador. Interested because the artifact little resembled Amerindian handiwork, he brought it with him to the United States where the material was tentatively identified at Harvard University as a hippopotamus tusk. But he had no time for further investigation. He brought the artifact with him to Mérida when Dr. and Mrs. M. W. Stirling were also visiting the Andrews. We all decided it merited further investigation. The Stirlings took it back to Washington, D. C, to try to check out its date and place of manufacture. Boogs undertook to investigate further its archaeological provenience. The results seem worthwhile recordin

Andrews, E. W., & Boggs, S. H. (1967). An African art object in apparently early archaeologica...jpg


Source: Andrews, E. W., & Boggs, S. H. (1967). An African art object in apparently early archaeological context in el Salvador: A caveat to the Diffusionist. Ethnos, 32(1-4), 18–25.
 

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Chinese Jades in America
Overview:
Exhibition of a collection of archaeological jade objects from various parts of the world. It showed objects from Nicaragua and Costa Rica carved in a type of jadeite from China.

Source: Putnam, Frederick W. Ornaments of Jade, American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, Vol.IV, April 1887, pp.62-63
 

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  • Putnam, Frederick W. Ornaments of Jade, American Antiquarian Society Proceedings, Vol.IV, Apri...pdf
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Chinese Jade in America
Overview:

Mr. Frederick W. Putnam makes a report of jade objects which have a double interest. Twelve specimens are reported from Nicaragua and Costa Rica, ten of which were ornaments made by cutting celts into halves, quarters, or thirds, a portion of the cutting edge of the celt remaining on each piece. The method of sawing the objects is indicated. The first query, therefore, is, For what reason should a celt of such hard material be cut up and perforated?

Source: Chinese Jade in America, American Naturalist, Vol.XXI, 1887, pp.96-97
 

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The Mexican Messiah, Quetzalcoatl
Overview:

There are few more puzzling characters to be found in the pages of history than Quetzatcoatl, the wandering stranger whom the early Mexicans adopted as the air -god of their mythology . That he was a real personage -that he was a white man from this side of the Atlantic, who lived and taught in Mexico centuries before Columbus was born- that what he taught was Christianity and Christian manners and morals-all these are plausible inferences from facts and circumstances so peculiar as to render other conclusion well - nigh impossible.

Source: Daly, Dominik. The Mexican Messiah, Quetzalcoatl, The Gentleman´s Magazine, Vol.XXLXV, September 1888, pp. 236-253
 

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  • Daly, Dominik. The Mexican Messiah, Quetzalcoatl, The Gentleman´s Magazine, Vol.XXLXV, Septem...pdf
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An Ancient South American, Maori and Indian Custom
Overview:

The suggestion has often been made that the Polynesians, in their extensive voyages about the Pacific which led them to all parts of that ocean, must have reached the shores of America. But so far the evidence is not complete, and yet there is no reason to doubt their powers of doing so. After what has been published in this Journal, descriptive of their daring on the sea, notably in the case of the Rarotongan voyager Tangiia, we are quite prepared to believe them capable of reaching the distant shores of the American Continent. To those who believe in this possibility the following will be of interest as a suggested point of contact in an old custom common to the ancient inhabitants of South America and to the Polynesians--at anyrate the custom shows an affinity to one practised by the Maori branch.

Source: An Ancient South American, Maori and Indian Custom, The Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. 20, no. 1(77), 1911, pp. 15–16.
 

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An Old-World Cubit in America (New Mexico)

Anonymous, An Old-World Cubit in America, Nature, Nº2793, Vol.III, May 12, 1923, p.617.jpg


Source: Anonymous, An Old-World Cubit in America, Nature, Nº2793, Vol.III, May 12, 1923, p.617
 
Man and Elephant in Central America.
Overview:

While on a botanical expedition to Mexico in the summer and autumn of 1938, I paid a visit to Guadalajara, in the Department of Jalisco. Here I met a man (Señor Don Miguel Sanchez del Castillo) whose hobby it was to dig up the bones of elephants and men from the dried-up bottom of a neighbouring lagoon. The bones were all found a few inches below the surface, and the excavator believed them to be contemporary. I was unable to see the bones in situ as, at the time of my visit, the lagoon was full of water.​

Gourlay, W. Balfour. “Man and Elephant in Central America.” Man, vol. 40, 1940, pp. 86–88..jpg
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Source: Gourlay, William Balfour. “Man and Elephant in Central America.” Man, vol. 40, June 1940, pp. 86–88.
 
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Traditions of Precolumbian Landings on the Western Coast of South America
Overview:

The origin of the people inhabiting the New World the first problems that busied European minds as soon realized that America was an independent continent. man have reached this land, that was so widely separated rest of the known world? In reality this question one, for it had been asked in regard to every distant inhabited by animals and plants as well as by man. had been proposed long prior to the fifteenth century ories in harmony with the state of knowledge and ligious fervor of the period.

Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier (August 6, 1840 – March 18, 1914) was a Swiss and American archaeologist who particularly explored the indigenous cultures of the American Southwest, Mexico, and South America.
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Source: Bandelier, Adolph F. “Traditions of Precolumbian Landings on the Western Coast of South America.” American Anthropologist, vol. 7, no. 2, 1905, pp. 250–70
 

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  • Bandelier, Adolph F. “Traditions of Precolumbian Landings on the Western Coast of South Americ...pdf
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Asiatic Survivals in (Northwest Coas) Indian Songs
Overview:

The Siberian origin of our northwestern natives can no longer be doubted. Abundant evidence, gathered for the National Museum of Canada in the last fifteen years, shows how the Athaspascan nomads, after they had crossed Bering into America, spread in various directions over a large part of our continent. Some of their roving bands, following game, journeyed south along the Rockies, or down the northwest coast, where salmon was plenti- ful. Many of them scattered over the vast swamps of the far north almost as far as Hudson Bay, while others ascended the Mackenzie into the grasslands of the prairies. Once they had discovered the buffalo, they vied in the hunt with the earlier prairie occupants, eventually displacing them with hammer- blows. For they were of the breed of the Tartars. They pene- trated as far south as Arizona, and were only prevented by the white man from invading Mexico, as the Mayas had done a millennium before

Barbeau, Marius. “Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs.” The Musical Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 1, 1...jpg


Charles Marius Barbeau, CC FRSC (March 5, 1883 – February 27, 1969), also known as C. Marius Barbeau, or more commonly simply Marius Barbeau, was a Canadian ethnographer and folklorist

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Source: Barbeau, Marius. “Asiatic Survivals in Indian Songs.” The Musical Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 1, 1934, pp. 107–16.
 

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Five Chinese Coins in the Southern Yukon and Northwestern British Columbia
Abstract:

Recent discoveries of Chinese coins minted in the early fifteenth, late seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries have rekindled interest in their protohistoric and early historic modes of transport
from China to the interior of the Yukon and northwestern British Columbia. Russian and British trading may have provided the link between China and coastal Tlingit peoples who carried or traded the coins into the interior. Historic Chinese placer miners in the late 1800s and early 1900s may have also carried these coins with them as lucky charms, amulets, or gaming pieces. While small components of site assemblages, the coins represent significant and expansive patterns of culture contact and movement in the North.
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Source: James Mooney, Todd Kristensen & Keary Walde. Making Your Cash Go a Long Way, Five Chinese Coins in the Southern Yukon and Northwestern British Columbia, Alaska Journal of Anthropology, Vol.X(1-2) 2012, pp.75-93
 

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Chinese Coins in Six Northwestern Aboriginal Sites
Abstract:

Chinese coins from six Pacific Northwest aboriginal sites are analyzed in terms of condition, dates, and identifying mint marks. The sites yielded 101 specimens. Two sites, Decker (35C02) and Mostul Grave (35CL3), contained Chinese coins that probably came into aboriginal use prior to 1830. Three sites, Trojan (35C01), Gladstone Grave (undesignated collection in Clackamas County Historical Museum, Oregon City), and Sullivan's Island (undesignated site excavated by the Smithsonian Institution in 1934), involved coins possibly in aboriginal use but problematic as to time and source of distribution. Coins from Bridgeport, Washington (surface collection), are probably trace able directly to post-1850 Chinese immigrant popula tion. Most coins came from two rather distinct zones in China. One area centers on the northeastern provinces and Peking; the second centers on the southwestern province of Yunnan. Older coins (pre-1736 K'ang Hsi and Yung Cheng types) are from northern mints.

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Source: Beals, Herbert K. “Chinese Coins in Six Northwestern Aboriginal Sites.” Historical Archaeology, vol. 14, 1980, pp. 58–72
 

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Facts Suggestive of Prehistoric Intercourse Between East and West
Abstract:

Dr. Wilson, in treating of this subject, points out three probable routes of migration from the eastern to the western hemisphere: 1, through the Isles of the Pacific to South America; 2, an Atlantic Oceanic migration, vid the Canaries, Madeira, and Azores, to the Antilles and Central America, and probably by the Cape Verdes to Brazil; and 3, vid Behrings Strait and the North Pacific Islands to the Mexican Plateau.

Source: Buckland, Anne Walbank. “Facts Suggestive of Prehistoric Intercourse Between East and West.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 14, 1885, pp. 222–32
 

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On American Shell-Work and Its Affinities (With Asia and Polynesia)
Overview:

I wish to call the attention of anthropologists to the very re- markable works in shell, obtained chiefly from mounds in many of the States of North America (Illinois, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas, Alabama, Virginia, Florida, Georgia, New York, California, &c., &c.), which do not appear to have any counterparts in Europe, but which seem to me traceable across the islands of the Pacific, and perhaps to Japan. In a most interesting and instructive paper on this subject in the " Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology," published by the Smithsonian Institute, Mr. W. H. Holmes obserrves: "' In a broad region at one time occupied by the mound-building tribes, we observe a peculiar and an original effort-an art distinctive in the material employed, in the forms developed, and to some extent in the ideas represented. It is an age of shell, a sort of supplement to the age of stone.

Source: Buckland, Anne Walbank “On American Shell-Work and Its Affinities.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 16, 1887, pp. 155–64
 

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  • Buckland, Anne Walbank “On American Shell-Work and Its Affinities.” The Journal of the Anthrop...pdf
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Points of Contact Between Old World Myths and Customs and the Navajo Myth, Entitled ‘The Mountain Chant.’
Overview:

The very curious myth of the Navajo Indians of New Mexico, entitled the myth of Dsilytdje QaVadl (Reared within the Moun- tains) or "The Mountain Chant," with the rites and dances in connection therewith, as given at great length in an elaborate paper by Dr. AWashington Matthews, in the fifth annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Smithsonian), contains so many points suggestive of contact with Eastern civilization that it appears to me especially worthy of the attention of Anthropologists. The Navajos, it may be remarked, now occupy territory adjoining the Zunis in New Mexico, but are supposed to have come froin much further south. They are at present advanced in the arts of metallurgy, pottery, and weaving, but the myth, and its ceremonial songs and dailces, take us back to a time when stone implements of a very early type were in use, for the hero and his brother are represented as choppiilg down poles for their hut or wigwam with a grooved stone axe, round which they twisted a flexible twig of oak, tied together with the fibre of the yucca, with which rude implement they chopped all day ill order to obtain four poles; they used a digging stick to dig for water, trapped small animals with stone traps, and when they caught them, pounded them up, bones and all, with seeds of grass and other wild plants, and boiled all together in an earthen pot. They do not appear to have had any domestic animals, as not even a doo is mentioned, and there were no horses.

Source: Buckland, Anne Walbank “Points of Contact Between Old World Myths and Customs and the Navajo Myth, Entitled ‘The Mountain Chant.’” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. 22, 1893, pp. 346–55
 

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A white bison was born in the Lakota part of Yellowstone National Park, and the indigenous people claim this is equal to Jesus returning.

This white bison will bring better times.

This folklore goes back thousands of years to a peaceful white bison woman spirit.

https://www.bbc.com/articles/ckrrlpdlzj7o
This is most interesting.
I wonder how it tallies with other portents, generally.
However, just reading the article and it says a similar birth occurred in Wisconsin in 1994, which hardly heralded the Age of Aquarius, or owt.
:(
 
The TV news claims the Lakota’s say this is different because because the white bison was born naturally in the wild in Yellowstone National Park and not on a farm or ranch.

The park ranges are saying nothing to protect the young bison in fear of someone stealing the white bison.

The second part of the prophecies is to protect the environment.
 
Native Lakota telling orally transmitted legends. Including White Buffalo womn and others human-animals

One Feather, Vivian . Lakota Oral Literature, 1974
Black Hills State College, Spearfish, South Dakota, Center or Indian Studies
 

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Native American gene flow into Polynesia predating Easter Island settlement
Abstract:

The possibility of voyaging contact between prehistoric Polynesian and Native American populations has long intrigued researchers. Proponents have pointed to the existence of New World crops, such as the sweet potato and bottle gourd, in the Polynesian archaeological record, but nowhere else outside the pre-Columbian Americas1-6, while critics have argued that these botanical dispersals need not have been human mediated7. The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl controversially suggested that prehistoric South American populations had an important role in the settlement of east Polynesia and particularly of Easter Island (Rapa Nui)2. Several limited molecular genetic studies have reached opposing conclusions, and the possibility continues to be as hotly contested today as it was when first suggested8-12. Here we analyse genome-wide variation in individuals from islands across Polynesia for signs of Native American admixture, analysing 807 individuals from 17 island populations and 15 Pacific coast Native American groups. We find conclusive evidence for prehistoric contact of Polynesian individuals with Native American individuals (around AD 1200) contemporaneous with the settlement of remote Oceania13-15. Our analyses suggest strongly that a single contact event occurred in eastern Polynesia, before the settlement of Rapa Nui, between Polynesian individuals and a Native American group most closely related to the indigenous inhabitants of present-day Colombia.
Source: Ioannidis, A. G., Blanco-Portillo, J., Sandoval, K., Hagelberg, E., Miquel-Poblete, J. F., Moreno-Mayar, J. V., … Moreno-Estrada, A. (2020). Native American gene flow into Polynesia predating Easter Island settlement. Nature, 583(7817), 572–577.
 

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  • Thorsby, E. (2016). Genetic Evidence for a Contribution of Native Americans to the Early Settl...pdf
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