Looks like everything they put us through, mandates, masks, hand washing, 6 foot distance.... no difference or very little difference in all cases and that does not include vaccines.
Hand washing helped a bit
Hand hygiene is likely to modestly reduce the burden of respiratory illness. Harms associated with physical interventions were under‐investigated
There is a need for large, well‐designed RCTs addressing the effectiveness of many of these interventions in multiple settings and populations, as well as the impact of adherence on effectiveness, especially in those most at risk of ARIs.
Physical measures, prevent respiratory viruses spreading between people
Washing hands often RCTs on hand washing = 19 N = 71,210
Wearing masks, eye protection, gloves, and protective gowns RCTs on masks = 78 No RCTs on gowns and gloves
Wiping surfaces with disinfectant 6 trials
Avoiding contact with other people (isolation or quarantine) 3 RCTs
Not touching your eyes, nose, or mouth No RCTs
Sneezing or coughing into your elbow No RCTs
Keeping a certain distance away from other people (distancing) Examining people entering a country for signs of infection (screening) No RCTs
Examining people on entry Hand hygiene interventions versus controls (i.e. no intervention)
Pooling for the broad outcome of ARI 14% relative reduction in the number of people with ARIs in the hand hygiene group RR 0.86, (0.81 to 0.90) 9 trials, n = 52,105 moderate‐certainty evidence, suggesting a probable benefit. In absolute terms
A reduction from 380 events per 1000 people, to 327 per 1000 people.
Using more strictly defined outcomes of ILI Estimates of effect for ILI RR 0.94 11 trials, n = 34,503 low‐certainty evidence
Beneficial effect was not statistically significant if ILI, and laboratory-confirmed ILI were analysed separately
Laboratory‐confirmed influenza RR 0.91 8 trials, n = 8,332 low‐certainty evidence, suggest the intervention made little or no difference.
Composite (pooled) outcome ARI or ILI or influenza Hand hygiene may be beneficial with an 11% relative reduction of respiratory illness RR 0.89 low‐certainty evidence In absolute terms. This benefit would result in a reduction from 200 events per 1000 people, to 178 per 1000 people Few trials measured and reported harms very low‐certainty evidence.
Surface/object disinfection compared to control Numbers of cases of viral respiratory illness (ARIs, ILI, confirmed influenza)
A significant reduction in ARI in the intervention group
OR 0.47 (53% benefit)